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  • Player Tips
  • Game Rules
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One of China’s top Mahjong players, Ricky Huang, shared some tips and strategies to Mahjong World Tour. Ricky started playing since he was eight years old and can’t remember a time when they didn’t have a mahjong table nearby.

Ten years ago, he started competing professionally. Every year, he tries to enter about six tournaments and have won several and placed in the top 10 in most.

The first discard (1)

You have just been dealt your first hand in a game of Mahjong (Chinese Official International Rules).
You are East, and the wind of the round is East. You are first to act.
Which tile would you discard?
tile_01tile_05tile_05tile_23tile_27tile_27tile_28tile_14tile_17tile_06tile_06tile_10tile_13tile_08
Official Answer


Best

tile_10

Keep the change of pure straight (wait 5/6 Characters), mixed straight (wait 5/6 bars) and outside hand (wait 2/3 bars), with best waiting tiles (2/5/6/7/8 Characters, 2/3/5/6 bars, 7dots).

100

Better

tile_05tile_27tile_14tile_17

 

80

Good

tile_23

 

60

Not Good

tile_01tile_28tile_06tile_13tile_08

 

0

 

The first discard (2)
You have just been dealt your first hand in a game of Mahjong (Chinese Official International Rules).
You are East, and the wind of the round is East. You are first to act.
Which tile would you discard?
tile_23tile_24tile_14tile_18tile_19tile_19tile_22tile_02tile_02tile_09tile_10tile_29tile_32tile_33
Official Answer


Best

tile_32

Because You are East, and the wind of the round is East. The east wind is a double point wind, so it is more important than the North wind. And keep the red dragon to change for all types.

100

Better

tile_14tile_22tile_29

 

80

Good

tile_19tile_33

 

60

Not Good

tile_23tile_24tile_18tile_02tile_09tile_10

 

0

 

The first discard (3)
You have just been dealt your first hand in a game of Mahjong (Chinese Official International Rules).
You are East, and the wind of the round is East. You are first to act.
Which tile would you discard?
tile_01tile_04tile_05tile_14tile_15tile_21tile_21tile_07tile_02tile_13tile_30tile_30tile_31tile_34
Official Answer


Best

tile_31

Keep the red dragon to change for all types and mixed triple chow (123).

100

Better

tile_13

 

80

Good

tile_01  tile_34

 

60

Not Good

tile_04tile_14tile_15tile_21tile_07tile_02tile_30

 

0

 

The first discard (4)
You have just been dealt your first hand in a game of Mahjong (Chinese Official International Rules).
You are East, and the wind of the round is East. You are first to act.
Which tile would you discard?
tile_23tile_26tile_15tile_16tile_19tile_22tile_06tile_10tile_12tile_12tile_13tile_31tile_32tile_44
Official Answer


Best

tile_12

When you want to lesser honors, knitted tiles, please discard the simples first. Another reason is if you have 3bamboo and 58 dots, you can discard 7, no 2dots, you should discard 1dots later. And if you play only one suit only at first, it is better.

100

Better

tile_15

 

80

Good

tile_06

 

60

Not Good

tile_23tile_26tile_16tile_19tile_22tile_10tile_13tile_31tile_32tile_44

 

0

 

The first discard (5)
You have just been dealt your first hand in a game of Mahjong (Chinese Official International Rules).
You are East, and the wind of the round is East. You are first to act.
tile_05tile_25tile_27tile_14tile_16tile_18tile_20tile_21tile_07tile_09tile_12tile_13tile_34tile_44
Official Answer


Best

tile_44

If you want to discard two different dragon, please discard it in the turn with white-green-red usually.

100

Better

tile_34

 

80

Good

tile_05

 

60

Not Good

tile_25tile_27tile_14tile_16tile_18tile_20tile_21tile_07tile_09tile_12tile_13

 

0


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Introduction
Mahjong is a game that is deeply intertwined with the Chinese culture. Mahjong World Tour has traveled all over China and discovered different mahjong rules in each locality. Places like Shanghai, Beijing, Hangzhou, and Ningbo all have their own rules in playing mahjong.

In 1998, in an effort to unify all mahjong players for competition play, the State Sports Commission of China invited mahjong professionals from around the country to debate a body of rules that could be applied to tournament play. What resulted from that debate was a set of rules called the Mahjong Competition Rules.
Mahjong Equipment
To play mahjong, you will need to have the following:

  • A mahjong set of 144 tiles
  • 2 dice for determining the seating
  • Scoring sticks for keeping score
  • A square table
(Mahjong tables are traditionally covered with green felt)
Official MWT Automatic Competition Tables are now available in the tournament. The table includes all the above equipment plus an extra set of mahjong tiles. With the automatic tables, players no longer need to mix up the tiles up and form the wall with their own hands. Everything is automatic. The most important thing, a player can not do any cheating action through building the wall and throw the dice.

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Mahjong Tiles
The following are the typical mahjong tiles in a mahjong set:
Suited Tiles
Circles or Dots:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Bamboos:
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Numbers or Characters:
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Honor Tiles
Wind Tiles

0 0 0 0
Dragon Tiles

0 0 0
Flower Tiles
Season Tiles

0 0 0 0
Flower Tiles

0 0 0 0

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Process of Game
Seating
The seating is a key element in mahjong as it is determined by wind directions - East, South, West and North. There are four available seats in mahjong and the East is the primary wind direction and signifies the dealer at the beginning of each turn. At the start of a mahjong game, the East is both the Prevailing Wind and the Game Wind.
Whether the dealer wins the game or not, they doesn't continue to be the dealer, the dealer position then passes counter-clockwise among the four players in the succeeding turns in the sequence East - South - West - North. Once the Game Wind has returned to the East, a full round has been completed and the South becomes the Prevailing Wind.
A full game of mahjong ends after four rounds or after the North Wind's turn at being the Prevailing Wind is over.
Determine seating in a game of mahjong. Players can roll the dice and the player with the highest rolls sits in the East position. The player with the second highest takes the South position, and the players with third highest and the lowest points take the West and North seats.

Breaking the Wall
After the wall is formed, the dealer rolls the two dice to determine where the wall will be broken for tile distribution. Based on the roll, the dealer counts counter clockwise starting from his position. The section where the count ends will be the part of the wall which will be broken first usually except the total rolls numerals two times are bigger than 18. For example, the dealer rolls a 5, the wall will be broken on the East side.
The player seated on the wind direction where the wall will be broken then rolls the two dice to determine at what tile section to break the wall. The result of the second roll will be added to the first roll to determine this number. For example, if the second number rolled is an 8, this is added to 5. The player then counts from the right hand side and breaks the wall section at the 13th tile.

The Deal / Tile Distribution
Starting with the dealer, the players each grab four tiles from the wall (in a clockwise direction) until the dealer holds 14 tiles and the three other players have 13 tiles each.

The Mahjong Game
The object of mahjong is to create combinations with the tiles. The following combinations are the basic sets in mahjong:

Pung: 3 identical tiles of the same suit

Examples:
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0

Kung: 4 identical tiles of the same suit

Examples:
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0

Chow: 3 tiles of the same suit in sequence

Examples:

0 0 0
0 0 0

Winning Combinations

1) A pair plus either four pungs, kungs or chow
2) A special hand (see list of Special Hands)


Discarding Tiles

The game begins with the dealer drawing 14 tiles, one tile more than the other 3 players. The dealer discards one of the tiles into the center. All discarded tiles must be face up in the middle of the table.

After the dealer discards the tile, the person to the right of the dealer has two options:
a) the person can either use the discarded tile to form a pung, kung or chow, or
b) they can draw a tile from the wall

Each player must discard a tile after either picking up a discarded tile or drawing a tile from the wall.


Picking Up Discarded Tiles

The following are the rules for picking up discarded tiles:

Pung: any player can call Pung to form three of a kind of the same suit

Kung: any player can call Kung to form a four of a kind of the same suit. When a player calls Kong, they must grab another tile from the end of the wall.

Chow: only the player on the current turn can call Chow to form a straight of the same suit.

Placement: Each time a pung, kung or chow is called, the combination of tiles must be placed face up on the table.


Ways of Winning

Self Draw: a player can win the game by grabbing a final tile from the wall that completes a winning hand and declare mahjong

Discarded Tile: a player picks up a discarded tile that completes a winning hand and declares mahjong. In this case, the player who discarded the tile will lose double the points to the winner.

Draw
Once all tiles in the walls have been used up without a winner, the game is declared a draw. The game is restarted but next player as the East Wind.


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Rule Summary
1. Eighty-one different hands, each assigned a value of 1-88.
2. Minimum 8 points to go out.
3. One game consists of 4 rounds (16 hands).
4. Use a simple sum to calculate combinations of hands.
5. Japanese "Reach" rule is not included.
6. Dealer does not receive additional payment when winning, nor repeat his or her deal.
7. No "Sacred Discard" rules apply. A player may go out on a tile that he or she has previously discarded. A player may claim an already-completed Chow or Pung and discard the remaining portion of it (for example, holding 2-3-4 and then claiming 1 to change the already-completed Chow to 1-2-3, then discarding the 4. For Pungs, it is acceptable to hold 8-8-8, steal the last 8 to create 8-8-8 again, and then discard the remaining 8.).
8. All Chows hand can finish with any type of Wait (Single, Closed, Edge, etc.).
9. A player goes out by announcing "hu (Mandarin Chinese, 2nd tone)" and revealing his or her hand.
10. No Dead Tiles will be designated. Play continues until the last tile has been used.

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Hands and Points Values 1
1 point hands - 13 hands

1. Pure Double Chow: Two runs of the same suit and same numerical sequence.
2. Mixed Double Chow: Two runs, one in each of two suits, of the same numerical sequence.
3. Short Straight: Two Chows in the same suit that run consecutively after one another (ex. 3-4-5 + 6-7-8 of Bamboos).
4. Two Terminal Chows: Runs of 1-2-3 and 7-8-9 in the same suit.
5. Pung of Terminals or Honors: Each Pung of 1, 9 or Honor tile scores 1 point.
6. Melded Kong: A Kong that was claimed from another player or promoted from a melded Pung.
7. One Voided Suit: A hand that lacks tiles from one of the three suits (Characters, Dots, or Bamboos).
8. No Honors: A hand formed entirely of suit tiles.
9. Edge Wait: Waiting for a 3 or 7 when holding 1-2 or 8-9, respectively. This hand is invalid when the edge wait is combined with any other waits. Combinations which do not add to the variety of tiles are acceptable (such as 1-2-3-3, which is a combination of an edge wait and a single wait, but only a 3 tile completes the hand).
10. Closed Wait: Going out on a closed wait (for example, holding 2-4 and waiting on 3). This hand is invalid when the closed wait is combined with other waits (for example, the combination wait 2-4-4-4 counts for neither Single Wait nor Closed Wait).  Combinations which do not add to the variety of tiles are acceptable (such as 1-2-2-3-4, which is a combination of a closed wait and an edge wait, but only a 3 tile completes the hand).
11. Single Wait: Going out on a single wait (finishing a head). This hand is invalid if the wait is any type of combination wait (as in 1-2-3-4 waiting on the 1 and 4). Combination which do not add to the variety of tiles being waited on are acceptable (such as 4-5-5-6, which is a combination of a single wait and a closed wait, but only a 5 tile completes the hand).
12. Self-Drawn: Going out with a tile drawn the wall.
13. Flower Tiles: Each flower tile is worth 1 point. When a flower tile is drawn, set it to the side and draw a replacement tile. If the player goes off this replacement tile, then Self-drawn (1 point) is added to the hand.
2 point hands - 10 hands
14. Dragon Pung: One Pung of Dragon tiles. May be concealed or melded.
15. Prevalent Wind: A Pung of the Table Wind which corresponds to the round in progress. May be concealed or melded.
16. Seat Wind: A Pung of that player�s Seat Wind (always East when the player is the dealer; for the other players, proceeds in the order South-West-North to the right of the dealer). May be concealed or melded.
17. Concealed Hand: Having a concealed hand (no melded sets) and going out off a player�s discard.
18. All Chows: A hand consisting of all runs and no honors.
19. Tile Hog: Using all four of a single suit tile without declaring them as a Kong. A Concealed Kong or Melded Kong does not also count as Tile Hog.
20. Double Pung: Two Pungs of the same numbers in two different suits (2-2-2 Bamboos + 2-2-2 Dots).
21. Two Concealed Pungs: Two Pungs which are achieved without claiming.
22. Concealed Kong: Created when four identical tiles, all drawn, are declared as a Kong.
23. All Simples: A hand formed without Terminal or Honor Tiles.
4 point hands - 4 hands
24. Outside Hand: A hand that includes Terminals and Honor in each element, including the head.
Example 1:
0 0 0 0 0 0 00 00 0 0 0 0 0 0
*Combined with Lower Tiles, Tile Hog, Double Pung, and Pung of Terminals or Honors(2).
Example 2:
0 0 0 0 0 00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
*Combined with Mixed Double Chow, Two Terminal Chows, Pung of Terminals or Honors, and One Voided Suit.
25. Fully Concealed Hand: A hand that a player completes without any melds and self-draws to finish.
26. Two Melded Kongs: Finishing a hand that contains two claimed Kongs.
27. Last Tile: Going out off a tile which is thelast of its kind. This fact must be clear to all players, i.e. the first three tiles of its kind are in the discard piles or are used in claimed sets. Points for Robbing the Kong are not added.
6 point hands - 7 hands
28. All Pungs: Formed by four Pungs (or Kongs) and a head.
29. Half Flush: Formed by tiles from any one of the three suits in combination with Honors.
30. Mixed Shifted Chows: Three runs, one in each suit, each shifted over one tile up from the last.
Example 3:
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
*Combined with All Chows and Short Straight.
31. All Types: A hand in which each of the five elements is composed of a different type of tile (Characters, Bamboos, Dots, winds, and Dragons).
Example 4:
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
*Combined with Mixed Shifted Chows and Dragon Pung.
32. Melded Hand: Every element of the hand must be completed with tiles discarded by other players. This means that all four sets must be claimed, and the player goes out on a single wait off another player. Points for Single Wait are implied.
33. Two Concealed Kongs: A hand including two concealed Kongs.
34. Two Dragons: Two Pungs (or Kongs) of Dragon tiles.


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Hands and Points Values 2
8 point hands � 9 hands

35. Mixed Straight: A straight (tiles 1-9) formed by Chows from all three suits.
Example 5:
- - - - - - - - - - - - - -
*Combined with Pure Double Chow and All Chows.
Example 6:
- - - - - - - - - - - - - -
*Combined with All Chows, Short Straight, or Mixed Double Chow.
36. Reversible Tiles: A hand created entirely with those tiles which are vertically symmetrical. The point for One Voided Suit is implied.
Example 7:
- - - - - - - - - - - - - -
*Combined with Full Flush and Pure Shifted Chows.
Example 8:
- - - - - - - - - - - - - -
*Combined with All Pungs, Dragon Pung, Double Pung, and Pung of Terminals or Honors (2).
37. Mixed Triple Chow: Three runs of the same numerical sequence, one in each suit.
Example 9:
- - - - - - - - - - - - - -
*Combined with All Chows, The Hog, and All Simples.
Example 10:
- - - - - - - - - - - - - -
*Combined with Upper Four, Pure Double Chow, and All Chows.
38. Mixed Shifted Pungs: Three Pungs, one in each suit, each shifted up one number from the last.
Example 11:
- - - - - - - - - - - - - -
*Combined with Lower Four, All Pungs, Double Pung, and All Simples.
Example 12:
- - - - - - - - - - - - - -
*Combined with Upper Tiles, Tile Hog, and Pung of Terminals or Honors.
39. Chicken Hand: A hand that would otherwise earn 0 points (the score from Flower Tiles do not count against this hand, and are added as a bonus beyond the 8 points for this hand).
Example 13:
- - Chow   - - - Pung   - - - Chow   -
Concealed portion:   - - - - - - Wait  
40. Last Tile Draw: Going out on a draw of the very last tile of the game. Does not combine with Self-drawn.
41. Last Tile Claim: Going out off the discard which is the last tile in the game.
42. Out with Replacement Tile: Going out on the replacement tile drawn after achieving a Kong. Does not apply to replacement tiles drawn for flower tiles.
43. Robbing the Kong: Winning off the tile that a player adds to a melded Pung, to create a Kong. Does not combine with Fully Concealed Hand.
12 point hands � 5 hands
44. Lesser Honors and Knitted Tiles: A hand made of singles of the following tiles. Any Honor tile, along with suit tiles that belong to different Knitted sequences (for example, 1-4-7 of Characters, 2-5-8 of Bamboos, and 3-6-9 of Dots � each of the 3 suits must belong to a different Knitted sequence, but not necessary in the order above). When finished with 7 honor tiles, the hand becomes Greater Honors and Knitted Tiles (see below). When drawn from the wall, only 1 point from Self-drawn is added (points for Fully Concealed hand are not added). Points for All Types are not added.
Example 14:
- - - - - - - - - - - - - -
45. Knitted Straight: A special Straight which is formed not with standard Chows but with 3 different Knitted sequences. For example, 1-4-7 of character, 2-5-8 of dot, and 3-6-9 of Bamboos � but not necessary in this order.
Example 15:
- - - - - - - - - - - - - -
*Combined with All Chows.
Example 16:
- - - - - - - - - - - - - -
*Combined with All Types and Pung of Terminals or Honors.
46. Upper Four: A hand created with suit tiles 6 through 9. The point for No Honors is implied.
Example 17:
- - - - - - - - - - - - - -
*Combined with Tile Hog and Mixed Double Chow.
Example 18:
- - - - - - - - - - - - - -
*Combined with Mixed Triple Chow, Pure Double Chow, and All Chows.
47. Lower Four: A hand created with suit tiles 1 through 4. the point for No Honors is implied.
Example 19:
- - - - - - - - - - - - - -
*Combined with Mixed Triple Chow, Pure Double Chow, and All Chows.
48. Big Three Winds: A hand that includes one Pung (or Kong) each of three winds.
Example 20:
- - - - - - - - - - - - - -
*Combined with All Terminals and Honors, and One Voided Suit.
Example 21:
- - - - - - - - - - - - - -
*Combined with Half Flush.


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Hands and their Values 3
16 point hands � 6 hands

49. Pure Straight: A hand using tiles 1-9 from any one suit, forming three consecutive Chows.
Example 22:
- - - - - - - - - - - - - -
*Combined with Full Flush, Pure Double Chow, and All Chows.
Example 23:
- - - - - - - - - - - - - -
*Combined with No Honors and One Voided Suit.
50. Three-Suited Terminal Chows: A hand consisting of 1-2-3 + 7-8-9 in one suit (Two Terminal Chows). 1-2-3 � 7-8-9 in another suit, and finally, a head of fives in the remaining suit.
Example 24:
- - - - - - - - - - - -- - -
*Points for Mixed Double Chow, Two Terminals Chows, No Honors, and All Chows are all implied.
51. Pure Shifted Chows: Three Chows in one suit, each shifted either one or two numbers up from the last, but not a combination of both.
Example 25:
- - - - - - - - - -- - - - -
*Combined with All Chows, Mixed Chow, and One Voided Suit.
Example 26:
- - - - - - - - - - - - - -
*Combined with No Honors.
52. All Fives: A hand in which every element includes a 5 tile.
Example 27:
- - -- - - - - - - - - - - -
*Combined with Middle Ties, Mixed Triple Chow, Tile Hog, Pure Double Chow, and All Chows.
Example 28:
- - - - - - - - - - - - - -
*Combined with Tiles Hog and Double Pung.
53. Triple Pung: Three Pungs, one in each suit, of the same number.
Example 29:
- - - - - - - - - - - - - -
*Combined with Lower Four, Tile Hog and All Simples.
54. Three Concealed Pungs: Three Pungs achieved without claiming tiles.
Example 30:
- - - - - - - - - - - - - -
*Combined with All Terminals and Honors, All Types, and Dragon Pung. Can also combine with Prevalent Wind and Seat Wind.
Example 31:
- - - - - - - - - - - -- -- -
*Combined with Full Flush.
24 point hands � 9 hands
55. Seven Pairs: A hand formed by seven pairs. Always finishes with a single wait. Does not combined with All Types, Fully Concealed Hand, or Single Wait.
Example 32:
- - - - -- - - - - - - - - -
*Combined with Tile Hog, All Simples, and One Voided Suit.
Example 33:
- - - - - - - - - - - - - -
*Combined with Tile Hog, and All Terminals.
56. Greater Honors and Knitted Tiles: Formed by 7 single Honors and singles of suit tiles belonging to separate knitted sequences (for example, 1-4-7 of Bamboos, 2-5-8 of Characters, and 3-6-9 of Dots). Does not combine with All Types, Fully Concealed Hand, or Single Wait.
Example 34:
- - - - - - - - - - -- - - -
57. All Even: A hand formed with Pungs of 2-4-6 and 8 tiles and a head of the same. Points for All Pungs and All Simples are implied.
Example 35:
- - - - -- - - - - - - - - -
*Combined with Double Pung (2) and One Voided Suit.
58. Full Flush: A hand formed entirely of a single suit. The point for No Honors is implied.
Example 36:
- - - - - - - - - - - - - -
*Combined with Four Pure Shifted Pungs and Pung of Terminals or Honors, All Pungs is not added, since it does not combine with Four Pure Shifted Pungs.
Example 37:
-- - - - - - - - - - - - -- -
*Combined with Quadruple Chow, Lower Four, and All Chows.
59. Pure Triple Chow: Three runs of the same numerical sequence and in the same suit. Does not combine with Pure Shifted Pungs.
Example 38:
- - - - - - - - - - - - -- -
*Combined with Middle Tiles, All Fives, All Chows, Mixed Double Chow, and One Voided Suit.
60. Pure Shifted Pungs: Three Pungs of the same suit each shifted one up from the last. Does not combine with Pure Triple Chow.
Example 39:
- - - - -- - - - - - - - - -
*Combined with Lower Four, All Pungs, All Simples, Double Pung, and One Vioded Suit.
61. Upper Tiles: A hand consisting entirely of 7,8, and 9 tiles. The point for No Honors is implied.
Example 40:
- - - - - - - - - - - - - -
*Combined with Double Pung, All Pungs, and Pung of Terminals or Honors.
Example 41:
- - - - - - - - - -- - - - -
*Combined with Mixed Double Chow, Double Pung, and Tile Hog.
62. Middle Tiles: A hand consisting entirely of 4,5, and 6 tiles. The point for No Honors is implied.
Example 42:
- -- - - - - - - - - - - - -
*Combined with Pure Shifted Pungs, Tiles Hog (3), and One Voided Suit.
63. Lower Tiles: A hand consisting entirely of 1,2, and 3 tiles. The point for No Honors is implied.
Example 43:
- - - -- - - - - - -- - - - --
*Combined with Mixed Triple Chow, All Chows, Tile Hog, and Pure Double Chow.
32 point hands � 3 hands
64. Four Shifted Chows: Four Chows in one suit, each shifted over 1 or 2 numbers from the last, but not a combination of both.
Example 44:
- - - - - - - - - - - - - -
*Combined with Full Flush and All Chows.
Example 45:
- - - - - - - - - - - - - -
*Combined with All Chows and One Voided Suit.
65. Three Kongs: A hand containing three Kongs. They may be melded or concealed.
Example 46:
- - - - - - - - -- - - -
- - - - -
*Combined with Four Pure Shifted Pungs, All Pungs, Double Pung, One Voided Suit, All Simples, and Lower Four.
66. All Terminals and Honors: A hand consisting entirely of 1,9, and Honor tiles. Points for All Pungs and Pung of Terminals or Honors are implied.
Example 47:
- - - - - - - - - - - - - -
*Combined with All Types and Double Pung.
48 point hands � 2 hands
67. Quadruple Chow: Four Chows of the same numerical sequence in the same suit. Points for Pure Shifted Pungs, Tile Hog, and Pure Double Chow are all implied.
Example 48:
- - - - - - - - - - - - - -
*Combined with Full Flush, Lower Four, and All Chows.
68. Four Pure Shifted Pungs: Four sets in the same suit each shifted one up from the last.
Example 49:
- - - - - - - - - - - - - -
*Combined with Lower Four, One Voided Suit, Reversible Tiles, and Pung of Terminals or Honors.


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Hands and their Point Values 4
64 point hands � 6 hands

69. All Terminals: A hand consisting entirely of 1 and 9 tiles. Does not combine with Double Pung or No Honors.
Example 50:
- - - -- - - - - - - - - - -
70. Little Four Winds: A hand that includes three Pungs of Winds and a head of the fourth Wind. Combines with Prevalent Wind and Seat Wind, but points for Big Three Winds are implied.
Example 51:
- - - - - - - - - - - - - -
*Combined with Outside hand and Half Flush.
71. Little Three Dragons: A hand that includes two Dragon Pungs, and a head of the remaining Dragon. Points for individual Dragon Pungs are not added.
Example 52:
- - - - - - -- - - - - - - -
*Combined with All Terminals and Honors, and Half Flush.
Example 53:
- -- - - - - - - - - - - - -
*Combined with Outside Hand, One Voided Suit, and Pung of Terminals or Honors.
72. All Honors: A hand consisting entirely of honors. Can be formed with Pungs or Kongs, any of which may be concealed or melded. Combines with Dragon Pung, but points for All Pungs are implied.
Example 54:
- - - - - - - - - - - - - -
*Combined with Two Dragons. Can also be combined with Seat Wind and Prevalent Wind.
73. Four Concealed Pungs: A hand that includes four Pungs achieved without melding. Does not combine with Fully Concealed Hand or All Pungs.
Example 55:
- - - - - - - - - - - - - -
*Combined with Mixed Shifted Pungs, Lower Four, Double Pung, and All Simples.
74. Pure Terminal Chows: A hand consisting of two each of the lower and upper terminal Chows in a single suit, and a head of five in the same suit.
Example 56:
- - - - - - - - - - - - - -
*Points for Full Flush, Seven Pairs, Two Terminals Chows, Pure Double Chow and All Chows are all implied.
88 point hands � 7 hands
75. Big Four Winds: A hand that includes Pungs (or Kongs) of all four winds. Does not combine with All Pungs.
Example 57:
- - - - - - - - - - - - - -
*Combined with All Honors.
Example 58:
- - - - - - - - - - - - - -
*Combined with All Terminals and Honors, and Half Flush.
76. Big Three Dragons: A hand that includes Pungs (or Kongs) of all three Dragon tiles. Does not combine with Dragon Pung.
Example 59:
- - - - - - - - - - - - - -
*Combined with All Terminals and Honors, and One Voided Suit.
Example 60:
- - - - - - - - - - - - - -
*Combined with Half Flush.
77. All Green: A hand composed entirely of the 2, 3,4,6,8 of Bamboos and the green Dragon tile. Does not combine with Half Flush. When green is not used, the hand combines with Full Flush.
Example 61:
-- - - - - - - - -- - - - - -
*Combined with Pure Double Chow.
Example 62:
- - - - - - - - - - - - - -
*Combined with Full Flush, All Pungs, Pure Shifted Pungs, and All Simples.
78. Nine Gates: Holding the 1, 1, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 , 9 , 9 tiles in one of the suits, creating the nine-sided wait of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9. does not combine with Full Flush, or with Pung of Terminals or Honors.
79. Four Kongs: Any hand that includes four Kongs. They may be concealed or melded.
Example 63:
- - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - -
*Combined with All Types and Pung of Terminals or Honors.
Example 64:
- -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
*Combined with Mixed Shifted Pungs, Double Pung, Lower Four, and Pung of Terminals or Honors (2).
80. Shifted Seven Pairs: A hand formed by seven pairs of the same suit, each shifted one up from the last. Does not combine with Full Flush, fully Concealed Hand, or Single Wait.
Example 65:
- - - - - - - - - - - - - -
81. Thirteen Orphans: A hand created by ingles of any 12 of the 1, 9, and Honor tiles, along with a pair of the 13th. Does not combine with All types, Concealed Hand, or Single Wait.
Example 66:
- - - - - - - - - - - - -


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Calculate the Points
The three types of points

Extra Points: Non-winning players must pay 8 points to the winning player;
Basic Points:points scored, based on the fan claimed by the winning player;
Penalty Points:if a player has fouled during the play of the hand, the relevant points must be subtracted after the hand has been finished.
How to calculate the points after a hand is finished
Win by self-drawn: Extra Points x 3 + Basic Points x 3
(Each player pays Extra Points + Basic Points to the winner);
Win by discard: Extra Points x 3 + Basic Points x 1
(Discarder pays winner Basic Points + Extra Points, and the other two players pay the winner Extra Points only).
Principles for counting the basic points
The chart above lists all of the 81 kinds of fan. First, determine the primary fan, which is the highest scoring fan. Then add lesser fan according to the following principles:
(1) The Non-Repeat Principle: When a fan is inevitably implied or included by another fan, both fan may not be scored.
(2) The Non-Separation Principle ("Unbreakable"): After combining sets to create a fan, it is forbidden to rearrange those same sets to create a different fan.
(3) The Non-Identical Principle: Once a set has been used to create a fan, it is not allowed to use the same set together with other sets to create same fan.
(4) Freedom to Choose the Highest Points ("the High- versus- Low Principle"): If you can use a set to form both a high-score fan and a low-score fan, it is your right to choose the high-score fan.
(5) The Account-Once Principle ("Exclusionary rule"): When you have combined some sets to create a fan, you can only combine any remaining sets once with a set that has already been used.


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Fouls and Penalties
A player who violates the rules or regulations will be penalized with a warning, and/or forfeiture of points, and/or loss of right to win the current hand, and/or loss of the right to enter future competitions, and/or cancellation of rank or grade, and/or open criticism.
Warning
For a minor infraction or for a first infraction, a player who fouls, violates the rules, or disturbs others during a competition may receive a warning form an umpire.
Forfeiture of points
Being late: After a competition has begun, the player is docked 10 Contest points if late by 10 minutes or less; 20 points if late by 11-15 minutes; 40 points if late by 16-20 minutes; 60 points if late 21-25 minutes, and then add 20 points per 5 minutes, until all points of the player were docked. These points will not be added to the present player's scores. Other players of the table should start the game after 15 minutes.
Rules Violation: the player violating rules may docked 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, or 60 contest points depending on the severity of the infraction (at the discretion of the umpires), which are not to be added to the other players scores.
Loss of right to right to win current hand
For certain infractions as per the rules and as determined by the umpire, the player's penalty may be the loss of the right to declare mahjong during the current hand.
Forfeiture of competitive rank and disqualification
For serious fouls or illegal benefit from the contest, a player may lose competitive rank and may be disqualified from the competition, or even from further competitions.
Specific violations and relevant penalties
The severity of the penalty varies according to the criteria of the rules system.
Cheating
The umpire has the right to penalize a player when he replaces a concealed standing tile by stealth or hides a tile, or otherwise cheats.
False Chow, Pung, Kong or Flower replacement
When a player has erred in making chow, pung, kong, or flower replacement, the player forfeits the right to declare mahjong during the current hand.
Empty Chow, Pung, Kong Call (Change Of Heart)
Players are not permitted to call a tile for exposure and then decide not to take the tile, This "change of heart" is known as making an "empty" call. The player will be warned the first time he makes an empty Chow, Pung, or Kong; the second time he'll forfeit 5 points; third time he'll forfeit 10 points; fourth time he'll forfeit 20 points, and so on.
Touching the tile
Touching the wall tile before his upper player has discarded a tile is a foul. The player will be warned first time, and second time will forfeit 5 points; third time will forfeit 10 points; forth time will forfeit 20 points, and so on. If the tile was not revealed, the offending player may replace the tile to its original position. If the tile was revealed, the offending player may not "Hu" during the hand, but must accompany the rest of the players in playing for the remainder of the hand.
Late Pung call
Declaring Pung after the 3 seconds allotted after the discard is foul. In any one round, the player will be warned first time; and second time will forfeit 5 points; third time will forfeit 10 points; forth time will forfeit 20 points, and so on.
Erroneous Call for "Hu"
If a player is waiting and mistakenly calls "Hu" on a discard (perhaps thinking it he forfeits 20 points to the other three players respectively, and is forbidden to win the current hand.
How to cope with erroneously exposed tiles
A tile exposed during the process of the game will be obliged to be discarded on the player's next turn.
If a player exposes all his tiles after somebody declares Hu, he is making a foul. I f it ;s determined that the declarer had indeed won, the player showing his tiles will get a warning; if the declarer's hand is determined to be invalid, the player who exposed his tiles forfeits his right to be win the current hand, and he is obliged to discard his shown tiles one by one to the other players who may then use the tiles, until are all discarded and replaced by fresh tiles. In addition, if an umpire verifies the above to be the case, the offending player is docked 30 points which are then give to each of remaining players.
A player who knocks over another player's tile forfeits 5-60 points to the offended player according to the umpire's discretion. And the umpire shall decide whether he may continue to play.
If the player who declares "Hu" is found not to have "Hu", it will not be penalized.
Wrong Tile Count
If a player has more than 13 or fewer than 13 tiles between turns, he or she may not declare "Hu" during that hand. The player may continue to pick, discard, and claim tiles, but cannot win that hand.
Passing information
The player who tips another player, or transfers information (true or false) by explanation, hint, expression, or other overt behavior, commits a severe foul. No matter weather the recipient of the information benefits or not, the information giver forfeits the right to win the current hand.
Severe disturbance to the competition
For an obvious disturbance violation, the player who persists in disobeying the umpire's demands will be disqualified from the competition, and subject to open criticism.
Other
A player must not declare "Chi", "Pung," or "Kong," followed immediately by the declaration of "Hu." When a discarded tile completes the hand, the player must say "Hu" only. Commission of this error, or errors involving "Hu" declarations in nonstandard ways, or failure to reveal his standing concealed tiles, prohibit his winning on the present turn; he'll have to discard a tile and hope to declare "Hu" on another turn. If a player shows his tiles but neglects to declare "Hu", he forfeits the right to win, and must continue playing.
Stretching out the hand across the discard floor to take a fresh tile from the wall forfeits the right to take the present discard. If a player stretches out his hand in this manner, yet takes the discard anyway, he shall be forbidden to chow, pung and kong and win the current hand.
Don't sure the principle
When a question arises, it should be reported and settled immediately. It is not permitted to ask for consultation after the game has continued.
Judgment on appeals
The Arbitration Committee has right which is appointed by the Rule System to judge, check, but no right to deny the judgment made by the umpire according to the requirement of the Rules System and other regulations of the contest.


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Appendix 1
Basic Glossary and General Rules
One go-around (Lun)
Everyone has discarded a tile in turn.
A hand (Pan)
Everything that occurs between a deal and either someone declaring “Hu” or nobody winning (Draw Game), a round usually consists of four hands of mahjong.
Wind Round (Quan)
Everybody has been dealer once. There are four rounds in a complete game of mahjong.
A complete game (Ju)
Four wind rounds, or in the case of a tournament, the allotted time to play four rounds has run out. In a tournament setting, a complete game (four rounds or the allotted time has run out) may also be called a “session.”
Prevalent Wind
A complete game consists of four rounds, named according to the four winds. The first round is called the East Round, the second round the South Round, the third round the West Round, and the last round the North Round.
Seat Wind
The indicator of the player’s seat in each round (also named according to four winds). The dealer’s Seat is call East, the player to the dealer’s right is South, the player opposite to the dealer is called West, and the plauer to the dealer’s left is called North.
Dealer and non-dealer
The “dealer” is the player sitting in the seat currently designated East. The other players are “non-dealers” (or simply “players”). After completion of the hand, the dealer should pass the dice to the right, regardless of whether he wins the hand or not.
Seat rotation
Term used to refer to the times when players are required to change seats.
Concealed tiles
There are thirteen tiles altogether after the deal, including any chows, pungs, and/or kongs. The Standing Tiles are those tiles which are not discarded by the player, the player’s thirteen tiles do not include kong replacements or flowers. The tiles which have not been melded prior to declaring mahjong (“Hu”) are called “concealed.”
The pair
When you succeed in making a complete normal-structure hand, the hand includes one pair (The Pair).
Chow
(Noun.) Three sequentially-numbered tiles of the same suit.
Pung
(Noun.) Three same-number tiles of the same suit (includes both concealed and melded pung).
A Pair
Any two identical tiles.
Honor Tiles
The Wind Tiles and Dragon Tiles, taken together, are called “honors”, There are four different Wind Tiles, of which there are not four each; East, South, West, North. There are three different Dragon Tiles, of which there are four each: the White Dragon, the Red Dragon and the Green Dragon.
Terminal Tiles
The tiles at the ends of a suit, in other words the One and Nine of a suit. Terminals are occasionally treated as or played as honors.
Chow (“Chi Pai”)
(Verb.) To take the discarded tile of the player to your left and meld them with two of your Standing Tiles to make a chow in front of your concealed tiles after you declare “Chi” (Chi Pai).
Pung (“Peng Pai”)
(Verb.) To take the tile discarded by another, and meld them with a pair from your Standing Tiles to make a Pung after you declare “Pung” (Peng pai).
Kong (“Gang Pai”)
(Verb.) To make an exposure consisting of four identical tiles. The term “kong” is also used as a noun to refer to a meld of four identical tiles.
Flower replacement (“Bu Hua”)
When you pick a Flower Tiles, you may expose it, declaring “flower” (“Hua”) and take a replacement tile from the back end of the wall, until there are no more Flower tiles in your hand.
Waiting
The state of waiting for one tile to complete the hand.
Winning, or going Mahjong (“Hu”)
The state of success: After you take a discarded tile or pick a tile by yourself, the fourteen tiles of your hand form a proper and complete structure as the rules prescribe, and the hand scores eight or more points.
Self-Drawn
To win by taking a fresh tile from the wall.
Win by Discard
To win on a tile discarded by another player.
Declare
You should declare (vocalize) “Chi” (when you chow), “Pung” (“Peng”), “Kong” (“Gang”), “Flower” (“Hua”) or “Hu” (when declaring mahjong), before you act.
Various “Fan”
The names of the scoring elements according to these rules.
Obligatory Discard
A tile that is obliged to be discarded on the subsequent turn due to erroneous exposure.
The Winning Tile
The tile you take for the win must be set apart from your row of tiles for examination by others. It is forbidden to put the final tile among your other tiles prior to exposure of the complete hand.
Wrong Tile Count
When it’s not a player’s turn, he must always have thirteen tiles in his hand (not counting exposed flowers). When there are more than or less than thirteen tiles in the player’s hand between turns, this is an error that disqualifies the player from declaring “Hu”.
Draw Game
When the wall has been completely depleted and nobody has made a complete winning mahjong hand.
False Hu (False Mahjong)
When a player declares “Hu”, but it is determined that he doesn’t have a valid winning hand according to the rules.
The Wall
After lining up the stacks of tiles, everybody has eighteen stacks of tiles before him. The four player’s walls are collectively called The Wall (or sometimes The Great Wall).
The Floor
The square area surrounded by the walls of the four players.


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Appendix 2
Procedure for Seat Rotation
Seats rotate so that everybody has a chance to sit in every position, and everybody has a chance to be dealer, and to sit in each other player�s Upper position.
Round Position
East South West North
1 (East Wind Round) East (A) South (B) West (C) North (D)
2 (South Wind Round) South (B) East (A) North (D) West (C)
3 (Western Wind Round) West (C) North (D) South (B) East (A)
4 (North Wind Round) North (D) West (C) East (A) South (B)

Exchange of Wind Position
1st Wind Round 2nd Wind Round
 

South

 
West   East
  North  
 

East

 
North   South
  West  
3rd Wind Round 4th Wind Round
 

North

 
South   West
  East  
 

West

 
East   North
  South  


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Mahjong arguably has the largest player base of any skill game in the world at around 350 million players, but where did it come from and how did it become so popular? There are several theories explaining the history of Mahjong. MWT supports a popular theory that Confucius invented mahjong around 500B.C. After doing our homework we chose this theory over others based on certain elements that show a strong connection between Mahjong and Confucius.

First: The meaning of the three special tiles (The Red Dragon, Green Dragon, and the White Dragon) correlates with the three virtues of Confucius' doctrine: benevolence, sincerity, and filial piety.

Second: Confucius' wife's name was Che, the same term and character (Chee) used to describe a hand combination of "three-tiles-in-a-row of the same suit."

Third: A set of four which is officially known as "Kong" originates from his own name. "Kong" means “sparrow”. Further evidence that Confucius was very fond of birds further supports a strong correlation between Mahjong and Confucius.

The reason for the intense popularity of mahjong in China is probably best explained by the skill level it demands and its ability to hold groups of friends and families together for hours on end, sometimes days.

Mahjong was introduced to the Western world around the 1920s. J.P. Babcock an employee of Standard Oil working out of their Chinese branch introduced it to the U.S. by writing a book titled Mahjong Rules Red Book of Babcock. This book spurred widespread popularity of the game throughout the United States. Babcock, realizing he was on to something big, started importing mahjong sets as fast he could get them on the boats, but still had trouble keeping up with demand.

The game gained popularity in Japan in the early 1920s and saw the first mahjong club open in 1927. After World War II there were an estimated 20 million players in Japan. That number is continuing to grow today and is very popular among college students, children and women.

When the communist government took over China in 1949, they banned the play of mahjong due to its intrinsic gambling quality. In the early 80s Chinese government officials were surprised to discover that there were many more mahjong players in Japan than in China - the home of mahjong! This spurred the government to begin a drive to re-popularize mahjong in China.

In 1998 China pronounced mahjong a part of their national cultural heritage and made it the 86th national sport.

MWT is proud to be a part of history by creating a world wide venue for players to convene and take mahjong to the next level.


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Mahjong Stories
A great deal of bunkum has been written about the origin of Mah Jong.   Both the Chinese, and later, the rest of the world decided to embellish the truth liberally and outrageously for nefarious purposes and the result has been a number of spurious assertions for the game's history.  As usual with Chinese games, one theory has it that Confucious invented it and mystical histories of hundreds and even thousands of years have been claimed often by western tradesmen keen to impress their potential customers.  All this is very unlikely because the stark truth is that no evidence of the game exists before around 1880. 

In fact, the history of the game is straightforward and can be viewed in two parts - "until the early 1920s" when the game was almost exclusively played by the Chinese and "after the early 1920s" when the game was discovered and immediately popularised by other nations.

A set of 144 Mah Jong tiles consists of 36 tiles in the Bamboo suit, 36 in the Circle suit, 36 in the Character suit, 16 Wind tiles, 12 Dragon tiles and 8 bonus tiles (4 Flowers and 4 Seasons).  The best tiles are made from bamboo and ivory or bone and have beautiful hand-painted pictures representing the face of each tile.   Traditionally, the Flowers, Seasons and the One of Bamboos come in for particular artistic creativity.

A set of 144 Mah Jong tiles consists of 36 tiles in the Bamboo suit, 36 in the Circle suit, 36 in the Character suit, 16 Wind tiles, 12 Dragon tiles and 8 bonus tiles (4 Flowers and 4 Seasons).  The best tiles are made from bamboo and ivory or bone and have beautiful hand-painted pictures representing the face of each tile.   Traditionally, the Flowers, Seasons and the One of Bamboos come in for particular artistic creativity.

The aim is to collect sets of tiles according to the number and type shown on the face of each tile.  A player takes and discards a tile each turn and the first player whose hand consists entirely of a legal set or sets goes out or goes "Mah Jong".  The game is effectively the same as the card game Rummy, in fact.   For what always appears initially to be a very complicated game, Mah Jong is really remarkably simple when reduced to its basics and it is only the accompanying rituals and complex scoring that change this.  One of these rituals, the process of shuffling the tiles at the start of the game, is known as "The twittering of the sparrows", presumably because of the accompanying noise.   Since Mah Jong means "the game of the sparrows" or "Sparrow tiles" in Chinese, it seems likely that this is the source of the game's title.

Tile games of some form have been found from around 1120 AD in China and Chinese dominoes has been played for centuries in that region.  For more information, see the history of Dominoes.  Mah Jong, however, bears a much greater resemblance in play to certain card games, namely those of the Rummy family.   Prior to the appearance of Mah Jong, a variety of card games were played in China with at least four types of cards decks.  However, just like Mah Jong the majority were of the set-collecting variety and certain terms from these old card games are also used in Mah Jong.  So, it seems not unreasonable to place Mah Jong as a nephew of those card games.

Tile games of some form have been found from around 1120 AD in China and Chinese dominoes has been played for centuries in that region.  For more information, see the history of Dominoes.  Mah Jong, however, bears a much greater resemblance in play to certain card games, namely those of the Rummy family.   Prior to the appearance of Mah Jong, a variety of card games were played in China with at least four types of cards decks.  However, just like Mah Jong the majority were of the set-collecting variety and certain terms from these old card games are also used in Mah Jong.  So, it seems not unreasonable to place Mah Jong as a nephew of those card games.

The conception event that mated the card collection methodology with the tile pieces is usually touted as a missing link and it certainly appears possible that Mah Jong may have been the result of such a unique event although it's just as likely that nothing so straightforward ever occurred.  Here are four theories for contemplation:

There is good evidence from Chinese researchers that Mah Jong originated in the provinces of Kiangsu, Anhwei and Chekiang near Shanghai because no records of Mah Jong are found in any other part of China before 1900.  Beyond that, one theory from Canton states that the inventor was Hung Hsiu-Ch'uan, the Cantonese who led a rebellion and proclaimed himself Emperor of Nanking.  It's certainly feasible that the game appeared in his court which was famous for its hedonistic pursuit of pleasure and entertainment.

A rival theory believes that the inventor was an inhabitant of Ningpo in Chekiang which is famous for its ivory carving.  It is believably claimed that playing cards used for an earlier game were for the first time recreated as ivory tablets here. 

A third, credits a pair of brothers in Ningpo with the act of transposing playing cards used for the game of Ma-Tiao onto ivory and bamboo about 1870 or 1880 and advances that a magistrate of Chekiang province became an enthusiast who promoted the game and made it popular throughout Chekiang.  A quite detailed account of this was given by one T. E. Pun and there is no doubt that Ma-Tiao is similar enough to Mah Jong to be reasonably certain that it is, indeed, its direct ancestor.

More cynical authors note that the Chinese term for card, "P'ai", actually simply means "playing rectangle" and the same word is used for such objects whether they be made of paper, card, bamboo, bone, ivory or any other solid material.  Evidence shows that many P'ai games recorded through history had always been played on both tiles and cards interchangeably.  This certainly spoils a good story but it is just as likely that no "invention" ever really took place and that a much more blurred development is the fact of the matter.

Regardless, the game that sprang from this area of China, almost certainly a descendant of the card game Ma-Tiao, was initially somewhat rough around the edges. In 1905, Mah Jong was not really known outside its original area but over the next 15 years it spread incredibly quickly across most of China and in doing so supplanted Chess as the most popular Chinese game.  The Chinese gradually removed the inelegant elements of game play and incorporated a bevy of rituals surrounding the method of play that have now become enshrined in stone.  Most of these rituals occur at the start of the game and are to do with the shuffling, the building of the four walls in a square, the deal and the splitting of the wall to form the "Kong box".  To a beginner, they seem mystifying and unnecessary but the truth is that Mah Jong is, by origin, a gambling game and most of these elements prevent cheating very effectively, a factor that is important when the stakes are high.....

These gradual improvements that nominally were concluded between 1910 and 1920, produced a game of  mathematical beauty as well as being physically aesthetic.   Certain authors wax lyrical for a great many pages about the mystic and harmonious background to this process and the result.  Suffice to say that numerous aficionados of the game regard the variety of Mah Jong of 1920 as the "perfect" Mah Jong and look upon all future modifications and evolutions with great disdain.  In fact, at this time, the Chinese played a ream of variations in rules and procedures according to the locale and the seriousness of the game, and so there was nothing clear-cut about the Chinese game of the 1920s which was as unregulated then as it is now.  However, the game had come about with a natural regard for playability and elegance.

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Mahjong in Western World
When the West "discovered" the game around 1920 the Mah Jong craze enlarged by another factor again to encompass much of the world.  Many regions in the Far East play a game akin to the classical Chinese form but in particular, the British, the Americans and the Japanese all grabbed the game and ran with it in their own direction. 

Mah Jong first hit Japan in 1907 and, like North America and the British Empire, became a fad in the 1920s.  A similar but less dramatic experience to that of America occurred in that the initial game was simplified and then complicated again with new rules.  However, the Japanese managed to do this without completely altering the underlying nature of the game and thus the game has remained steadily popular.

Japanese rules take two general forms - those adopted officially by the Japanese Mah Jong Association and "riichi", all the unofficial but sometimes more popular versions played by casual players.  However, the main differences from the classical Chinese game are consistent in both.  The primary modification is that the winner is paid by all players so that there are no points for second place.   Unlike other variants, therefore, each Japanese round is an all-out race to be the first to go Mah Jong as opposed to a more careful campaign with the long term objective of amassing the greatest number of points over a series of games.

Mah Jong was taken to America by Joseph P. Babcock who began importing sets in bulk to the USA in 1922.  In order to make it a commercial success, Babcock heavily simplified the rules, many of the interesting intricacies of play being removed.   While this worked to a degree because the game did indeed become popular very quickly, Americans were not satisfied for long with this version.  Consequently they began to embellish it, by the addition of an array of weird and wonderful "special hands" that allowed one to go Mah Jong and other new rules supposed to increase the enjoyment.  The result was confusion.  The two most popular variations of the game in 1924 were the One-Double and the Cleared-Hand games and little was known of the classical form from China.  While superficially more enjoyable, after a short time, people lost interest in these games and consequently, the Mah Jong bubble burst.

In 1935, the game began to gain again in popularity in America based on newly published rules from the The National Mah Jong League Inc. who still claim to produce the "official" American rules.  Unfortunately, rather than go back to the essence of the original form, the same error was repeated and an effort to simply fix the flawed existing American games was made.  This complicated and pushed American Mah Jong even further from the original form.  Indeed, it is now so different from the original Mah Jong that it is effectively a different game, its most notable feature being the enormous number of legal special hands.

In Britain, an explosion of interest occurred about the same time as the initial bubble in America and this was mirrored in many other parts of the British Empire, especially in India.  For instance, Chad Valley first published the game in 1923. Both the American and the Chinese forms were played but, unlike most Americans, the British understood that the Chinese version was the "real" game and that the American and other versions were modern forms.  The most popular variations were based on semi-official rules in circulation - The Queens Club Rules and the rules laid down in a booklet by C.M.W Higginson.  Both of these were based on Chinese variants which probably accounts for the fact that the game remained popular in Britain well into the 1930s - considerably longer than in America - although interest dwindled between the wars.  Nowadays, although the usual proliferation of rules exists, the British Mah Jong Federation publish a set of rules that are a distillation of the way that Mah Jong has been played in Britain during the 20th century and these rules are closer to the Chinese game than the Japanese or American varieties.  The main differences are that only one Chow is allowed per person per round and that a few additional special hands are permitted.

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A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T V W Y

Game Glossary A

All Green
One of the classical Limit hands. The hand consists only of green Bamboo (numbers 2, 3, 4, 6 and 8) and Green Dragon tiles (in regular sets or as seven pairs). Some rules allow White Dragons as well (as in some tile sets green color appears also in White Dragons).

All Honors
One of the classical Limit hands. The hand consists of Wind and Dragon tiles only (in regular sets or as seven pairs).

All Honors Hand
A hand consisting of 14 honor tiles.

All Simples
A winning hand consisting solely of suit tiles from 2 to 8. Japanese, Chinese New Style and Chinese Official rules reward a small bonus for this easy-to-collect hand.

All Symbols
Another name for All Honors.

All Terminals
One of the classical Limit hands. The hand consists only of terminals, i.e., suit tiles 1 or 9 (in regular sets or as seven pairs).

All Terminals and Honors
A hand consisting only of Terminals and Honors (opposite of All Simples). Most rules reward a bonus for this hand.

Avatar
Another word for the animated character representing each player.

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Game Glossary B

Baiman
Japanese mahjong word, 2 times Mangan. Score received with a hand worth 8-10 fans.



Ball
Another Name For Circle

Bam
Another name for bamboo

Bamboo suit
Named as each tile (except the 1 Bamboo) consists of a number of bamboo sticks. Each stick is said to represent a string (suo) that holds a hundred coins.

Bamboos
One of the three suits, sometimes bams or sticks.Numbered tiles 1-9 with the bamboo design. The 1-bamboo tile has a picture of a bird. Numbers represented by number of bamboo sticks on each tile.

Basic
The game of Mahjong played without the bonus tiles. 136 tiles are used.

Big Four Joys
Another name for Big Four Winds

Big Four Winds
One of the classical Limit hands. Consists of triplets of all four Winds.

Big Three Dragons
One of the classical Limit hands. A hand consisting of Pungs/Kongs of all three Dragons and any other remaining set (Chow, Pung or Kong) and a pair. Some rules might specify restrictions for the remaining tiles.

Birds Singing in Harmony
Another name Pung hand

Bonus Tiles
The four flower tiles and the four season tiles. Also called optional tiles. These tiles cannot be kept in a hand. They must be revealed or declared on the player's turn. A replacement tile will be dealt for each bonus tile revealed.

Breaking The Wall
A procedure used to determine the area of the wall from which players are dealt tiles, as well as the area that will be used for replacement tiles.

Buckets
Another name for circles.

Building the Wall
After shuffling the tiles face down, players each build a linear structure 17 tiles (or 18, when using bonus tiles) long, stacked two high. The four structures are then pushed to the center of the table to form the square Mahjong wall.

Buried Treasure
Another name for Hidden Treasure

Bushels
Another name for Bamboos.

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Game Glossary C

Calling
Waiting for the winning tile.

Calling Hand
A hand that only needs one piece to win

Catching the Fish from the Bottom of the River
Another name for Out on the last discard.

Catching the Moon from the Bottom of the Sea
One of the classical Limit hands. Going out on the last tile of the Wall, tile being 1 of the Dots suit. Note that in some rules the original term refers to going out on any last tile of the Wall (not just 1 of Dots).

Character Suit
Named as each tile represents ten thousand (wan) coins, or one hundred strings of one hundred coins.

Characters
One of the three suits, sometimes called cracks or wan.

Chee
Another name for chow.

Cheung
A term used to refer to suit tiles 2, 5 and 8 (these are discarded more seldom than other suit tiles). Sets composed of Cheung tiles earn extra points in some versions of Mah Jong (notably in the Chinese New Style Mah Jong).

Chi
Chinese term for a sequence of three tiles of consecutive ranks in one common suit; also called chow, sheung or sequence. You cannot make a chi in runs of four and you cannot make them from honor tiles.

Chicken Hand
The lowest possible scoring hand, containing mixed suits and/or a mixture of chows, pongs, and/or kongs.

China Jade
A hand composed entirely of green tiles.

Chow
A chow is a meld of three suited tiles in sequence. Unlike other melds, an exposed Chow may only be declared off the discard of the player on the left. American Mahjong does not have a formal chow (that is, you cannot declare chows), but some hands may require that similar sequences be constructed in the hand. Some American variations may also have the knitted sequence, where the three tiles are of three different suits. Sequences of higher length are usually not permissible (unless it forms more than one meld).

Chow Hand
A hand composed of four Chows and a pair. In order to be a scoring hand, most rules specify restrictions on either the nature of the pair (e.g., the must be non-scoring or not consist of Honors) of or on the way the hand goes out (e.g., the Japanese rules require Chow hand to be a No-points hand, which requires that it goes out on a discard that is used for a multiple-chance Chow).

Circles
One of the three suits, sometimes called coins or dots. 1 [一], 2 [二], 3 [三], 4 [四], 5 [五], 6 [六], 7 [七], 8 [八], 9 [九]

Claim
As a player discards a tile, another player can require, or claim, it in order to compose a set. Most rules apply certain restrictions on claiming a discard, e.g., a tile for a Chow can usually be claimed only from the previous player, unless the claiming player can use the tile to complete his hand and go out.

Claim a Discard
To pick up a tile that has been discarded by another player.

Clear Hand
The whole hand is of one suit.

Coins
Another name for Circles.

Colors
A classification of tiles consisting of three tiles. They are red, green, and white, bearing the characters chung, fat, and bo (or often none at all in the last case), respectively. Generally called Dragons by westerners.

Combine / Combination
To match tiles in groups of three or more; also a matched set of at least three tiles, either a pong, kong, or chow.

Common Tiles
108 tiles composed of 4 sets of same-suit tiles, each set numbered 1 to 9 in three different suits: bamboo, circles and character.

Complete Hand
A winning, or "go Mahjong" hand which is composed of at least 14 tiles.

Concealed
A tile or tiles drawn from the wall and not exposed.

Concealed Hand
Traditionally a hand where all tiles are drawn from the Wall. If a concealed hand is subsequently completed on a self-drawn tile, the winning hand is said to be fully concealed, or a concealed self-drawn hand (men qian qing zi mo, Jap. men-zen tsumo); if the winning tile is a discard it is just called a concealed hand. Note that there are considerable differences between the rules regarding the acceptance of Kongs as part of a concealed hand (some rules allow no Kong, some allow only concealed Kongs, some allow concealed and claimed but not ones promoted from melded Pungs, and some rules accept all Kongs as concealed sets).

Concealed Meld
Pongs or kongs that are dealt to a player or obtained by picking a tile from the wall; compare to exposed meld in which they are made from tile discards and therefore revealed to other players.

Concealed Set
A set that is not shown to the opponent until mahjong.

Crack
One of the three suits.

Circle Suit
Named as each tile consists of a number of circles. Each circle is said to represent copper (tong) coins with a square hole in the middle.

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Game Glossary D

Dead Hand
A hand in which no one completes a winning hand before all tiles except the Dead Wall have been drawn. The round ends then with no winner.

Dead Tile
A discarded tile that is no longer available for play. Once a tile is thrown, the discarder cannot recall it. A discarded tile that is not picked up by another player on the next turn also becomes unusable thereafter.

Dead Wall
"Normally the 14 tiles to the right of the breaking point of the Wall are designated as the Dead Wall. Supplement tiles (replacements for Kongs) are taken from the Dead Wall. If Flowers and Seasons are used, supplement tiles for them are normally also taken from the Dead Wall (though in classical Chinese rules they are taken from the Wall, instead). Usually each supplement tile is replaced with a tile taken from the other end of the Wall, so the number of tiles in the Dead Wall always remains the same. Some rules use an exhaustible? Dead Wall with a predetermined number of supplement tiles in which case the used supplement tiles are not replaced with wall tiles. E.g., in the Chinese Classical rules an exhaustible Dead Wall of 16 tiles is used. In modern American and Australian rules, and modern pattern-centered Asian Mah Jong, Dead Wall is not used, at all. Note that when a replenishing Dead Wall is used and there are no tiles left in the Wall (that is, the only tiles left in the game are the tiles in the Dead Wall), the deal ends immediately when a new tile is needed in the game. That means, among other things, that a player cannot receive a supplement tile for a declared Kong or an extra tile (a Flower or a Season) after there are no tiles left in the Wall (since there are no more tiles which could be used to replenish the Dead Wall)."

Deal
To distribute tiles from the live wall.

Dealer
The player who is currently East and responsible for dealing the tiles. The dealer starts a hand, and in rules based on classical Mah Jong he receives and pays double. Normally, if the dealer wins, the deal does not pass. Otherwise the next player in turn becomes the dealer (that is, East becomes North, North becomes West, West becomes South and South becomes East).

Declare
To utter a declaration of Chow, Pung, Kong, Ready or Out.

Discard a winning tile
To discard a tile that is claimed by another player who uses the tile to complete his hand and goes out. In Japanese Mah Jong, discarder of the winning tile must pay for all losers. In classical rules, this is not penalized in any way, but in modern Chinese rules discarder normally has to play double while other losers pay normally (in the Chinese Official and Taiwanese rules discarder pays alone, but just for himself, so it is an advantage to try to go out self-drawn).

Discard Area
The portion of the table in the front of the players where unwanted tiles are discarded, face up.

Discard Pile
A pile where discarded tiles are place. The player and the opponent each have separate discard piles.

Discard(n.)
A tile a player removes from his hand and places face up on the table after having received a new tile from the Wall, a supplement tile from the Dead Wall, or after having claimed a tile discarded by another player.

Discard(v.)
Removing a tile from the hand and placing it face up into the discard area to end the turn.The discarded tile can be claimed by other players within a reasonable time limit, if they can use the tile to complete their hand or a set of Pung or Kong. A player next in turn after the discarder can also claim a tile for a Chow. If no one claims the tile, it is placed amongst the discarded tiles inside the Wall and can no longer used during the deal.

Discarder
A player who discards the winning tile.

Disks
Another name for Circles.

Dispersed Kong
A hand with four identical suit tiles other than in a kong.

Dominant Wind
Determined by the breaking point of the Wall at the start of the deal. In certain rules (notably the French rules), extra points are paid for sets that are composed of dominant Wind tiles (note the difference to the prevailing wind).

Dora
Japanese mahjong word, A random tile or tiles, that changes each round, that can increase a player's score if it is contained within a player's hand. The Dora is the tile following the Dora Indicator. Check the Scoring section for more information.

Dora Indicator
Japanese mahjong word, A tile or tiles that lay face up in the dead pile.

Dora tiles
"Bonus tiles typically used in modern Japanese Mah Jong. Dora tiles are determined by exposing tiles (called Dora indicators) from the Dead Wall at the start of the deal and, optionally, each time a player declares a Kong (these tiles are called Kong Dora, or more properly, indicators of Kong Dora tiles). Each tile in the winner’s hand that is a successor of a Dora indicator gives bonus points. The successor is determined as follows: for the suits, the next number of the same suit (rotating from 9 back to 1), for Winds, the order is East, South, West, North, and for Dragons, Red, White and Green. E.g., if the winner has a Pung of Bamboo 3’s and a pair of Green Dragons, and the Bamboo 2 and White Dragons appear as Dora indicators, the winner receives extra points for a total of 5 tiles. Sometimes special tiles called Ura Dora are used besides the regular Dora tiles in the case the winner goes out on a hand that has been declared Ready. In this situation the tiles below the Dora indicators are exposed after the winner has declared out, and the winner receives bonus points also for each tile in his hand that is a successor of a Ura Dora (or Kong Ura Dora) indicator. Some rules also use special red Dora tiles (also known as Red Fives or Red tiles). For details, see Red Dora tiles. "

Dot
Another name for circle.

Double
A set of conditions either with respect to how a hand was completed or the tiles within it that entitles the player holding it to double their points. Doubles are cumulative, and can result in ludicrous scores in excess of 25 million, so there is a Limit.

Double Wind
Wind tile that is at the same time player own Wind and Wind of the Round (or Dominant Wind). Pungs and Kongs of Double Wind usually pay the same as if the player had separately a Pung/Kong of Own Wind and Pung/Kong of Wind of the Round (or Dominant Wind), but some rules specify separate scoring (usually lower) for sets with Double Winds.

Dragon tiles
red, green, and white. The term dragon tile is a western convention introduced by Joseph Park Babcock in his 1920 book introducing Mahjong to America. Originally, these tiles are said to have something to do with the Chinese Imperial Examination. The red tile ("中"榜) means you pass the examination and thus will be appointed a government official. The green tile ("發"財) means, consequently you will become financially well off. The white tile (a clean board) means since you are now doing well you should act like a good, incorrupt official.

Draw (n)
"When there are no tiles left in the Wall, and none of the players succeeds to complete his hand and go out, the hand is said to end in a draw (or wash out). Note that if a replenishing Dead Wall is used and a player declares a Kong with the last tile of the Wall, or receives an extra tile (a flower or a season) as a last tile from the Wall, the deal ends immediately and no supplement tile is given. Usually no points are calculated nor paid after a draw, but there are exceptions. According to the classical Japanese rules the deal passes after a draw, but in other versions of Mah Jong the hand is normally played again. Some rules apply special rules for the deal that is played after a draw (see Goulash) Some rules allow also declaring an abortive draw in certain specific situations, e.g., if three players claim the same tile for going out, etc. In these situations the current deal is immediately abandoned and a new deal is started without passing the deal. For more information, see Abortive draws in the Miscellaneous rules section of the Japanese rules. "

Draw (v)
To pick a tile from the Wall.

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Game Glossary E

Earthly Hand
One of the classical Limit hands. South, West or North player goes out on East's first discard.

Earth's Blessing
Another name for Earthly Hand.

East Wind
Another name for dealer.

Elements
Another name for Dragons.

Exposed
A face-up tile, part of a set or a discard. Another name for Melded.

Exposed Hand
A hand composed of one or more sets that have been revealed during the game. This indicates that they were formed from a discarded tile at some point. The opposite of a concealed hand.

Exposed Meld
A pong, kong or chow made by using a discarded tile ; compare with concealed meld.

Extra Deal
Another name for Extra hand.

Extra Hand
"When the dealer wins a game the deal normally does not pass. The rules may also specify that if the deal ends in a draw, deal does not pass (or passes only under certain conditions). A continued deal is said to be an extra hand or extra deal. The modern Japanese versions often specify that the losers must pay bonus points to the winner for each extra deal. The bonus is increased for each continued deal, e.g. if it is 300 points for the 1st extra deal, it is increased to 600 and 900 points on successive extra deals. Normally the counter of extra deals is reset immediately as the dealer changes (either because of another player wins or because of a draw). However, some rules specify that the extra deal counter is not reset until non-dealer wins. If the deal passes after a draw (and the deal was an extra deal), the next deal is considered a continued deal and extra deal counter is increased by one."

Extremes
Another name for Dragons.

Eyes
The pair, while not a meld (and thus, cannot be declared or formed with a discard), is the final component to the standard hand. It consists of two identical tiles.

etting Off the Cannon
Discarding a dangerous tile (bao pai), which leads in a situation that a winner goes out (not necessarily immediately after having claimed the dangerous discard, but later either self-drawn or by discard) on a high-scoring hand. Note: Use of this term is discouraged as it is a direct translation of the Chinese original term , which means just discarding a winning tile? Note that a dangerous discard does not necessarily involve discarding of the winning tile, but just a tile that lets a winner to later go out on a big hand.

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Game Glossary F

Faan
Another name for Fan.

Faan-Laak
A scoring system used in modern Chinese Mah Jong, according to which the final score of the hand is determined by a settling table which regulates doubling of the scores and often specifies identical or intermediate values for increasing number of Faans-Laak? specifies the limit, but unlike the classical and Western rules, it does not specify the absolute limit for the final score, but is used as a unit indicating a point where linear doubling is first time settled (e.g., a hand can be worth 3 limits). For more information, see Faan-Laak scoring.

Family Hand
A hand composed or the three suits, dragons and winds.

Fan
Japanese mahjong word, Used in scoring as a doubler. A player can receive Fans for having Doras and Yakus within his or her winning hand.

Fishing
Another name for calling.

Flower Tiles
Bonus Tile. typically optional components to a set of mahjong tiles, often contain artwork on their tiles.

Flower Wall
Another name for Dead Wall.

Forbidden Discarding
Another name for Pao

Four
Another name for Kong

Four Concealed Triplets
Another name for Hidden Treasure

Four Kongs
One of the classical Limit hands, consisting of Four Kongs and a pair of any tiles. Some rules allow going out without completing the pair.

Four Triplets
Another name Pung hand

Four Winds
Represent the seating arrangements: East, West, North and South. The player chosen as the East Wind also acts as the dealer and starts the game.

Fourfold Plenty
Another name for Four Kongs.

Four-of-a-kind
Another name for Kong.

Free Tile
"A tile is free when: It is not covered at all by any other tile. There are no tiles touching it on the right or left side. This does not apply to the top or bottom of the tile. "

Fu
Ch. and Jap. for the Point unit used for scoring in classical Chinese Mah Jong and all Japanese versions of Mah Jong. Note that the point unit is normally not used in modern Chinese Mah Jong

Furiten
Japanese mahjong word, A tile that a player cannot declare Ron with if that tile was previously discarded by him or her. If one of his or her tile possibilities to go out with is a Furiten, then the rest of the tiles that a player can go out with are considered Furitens as well.

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Game Glossary G

Game
A complete game of Mah Jong normally consist of four rounds (East, South, West and North), which in turn consist of at least four hands, so that each of the players has been a dealer at least once per a round. There are often more than four hands per round, since normally the deal does not pass if the dealer (East) wins or if the deal ends in a draw.

Game End
The game finishes when once someone goes Mahjong, or a draw ensues.

Gang
Another name for kong, Chinese word.

Going Mahjong
Declaring a hand worth eight points or more. Ending a game by obtaining a complete hand of tiles, composed of either a special hand or a traditional hand that includes a pair of identical tiles (eyes) and 4 sets of matched tiles.

Going Out
Another name for going Mahjong, or winning.

Gong
A set of four identical tiles. More commonly known as "Kong" and in traditional Chinese, "Gang", also referred to as a set of four and a quadruplet. To kong also means to call the play and lay down the four tiles.

Goulash
"A rule sometimes used in both the Western and Asian rules, which specifies that a special deal is played after a deal ends in a draw. E.g., in the British and Australian rules the Goulash deal is started with a Charleston (exchange of tiles); in addition, four jokers are used, and the winning hand is not allowed to contain Chows. The winner of the Goulash deal often collects a special bonus. Sometimes the term is used just to denote a re-deal (a situation where a new deal is started after a draw without passing the deal)."

Great Wall of China
The four lines of tiles pushed together to form a square.

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Game Glossary H

Haitei
Japanese mahjong word, Name given to the very last tile drawn in a round.

Han
Jap. for double or multiplier?(the Chinese equivalent is faan?. Note that in modern Japanese Mah Jong based on the Mangan scoring system a fan? is not actually a double, but instead a sort of regulated multiplier. The final score is determined by the combination of a given fu and han values earned by the hand. E.g., the final score for a hand worth 20 points (fu) and 3 han is not 160 points (20 points doubled three times), but 640 points, specified by a settling table.

Hand
A deal of tiles that ends in one of the following situations: a) one of the players goes out, b) one of the players makes a faulty declaration of ‘Out’, c) hand ends in a draw.

Haneman
Japanese mahjong word,1.5 times Mangan. Score received with a hand worth 6-7 fans.

Heads
The pair of tiles necessary in most hand to go out.

Heavenly Hand
One of the classical Limit hands. East goes out on the dealt hand (after having replaced possible Flowers and Seasons).

Heaven's Blessing
Another name for Heavenly Hand.

Hidden Treasure
One of the classical Limit hands. The hand consists of four concealed triplets and a pair. The rules vary significantly as for acknowledging Kongs in this hand, and in respect of the required way of going out. In the Chinese Classical rules the hand is allowed to contain concealed Kongs, but the winning tile must be self-drawn. Japanese rules also allow concealed Kongs but do not require the hand to go out on a self-drawn tile. Other rules might require that the hand goes on a pair (some allow going out on a discard, other require a self-drawn winning tile).

Hong Kong Rules
The most common rule set used in Mahjong, also known as the old 13-tile rules. Hong Kong Bonus rules include the flowers and seasons tiles; Hong Kong Simple rules use the basic 136 tile set, no bonus tiles.

Honours
The winds and dragons, as distinguished from common suit tiles and bonus tiles.

Hu
Another name for going Mahjong, or winning. Chinese word.

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Game Glossary I

Identical Tiles
Tiles with the same numerical face value derived from the same suit.

Imperial Jade
Another name for All Green.

Independent hand
Another name for Concealed hand.

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Game Glossary J

Jiang
Another name for eyes, Chinese word.

Jokers
"Extra tiles used in Modern American Mah Jong (and sometimes also in the Chinese New Style). The number of jokers is often 4 or 8, but some players use even more. Sometimes the use of jokers is restricted in some way (e.g. not allowed to replace Chows or single tiles). In so called 12-tile Mah Jong each player receives one (virtual) joker in a dealt hand: the joker can be seNd? only at the time of going out. "

Jong
Another name for dealer.

Juntsu
Japanese mahjong word, A set of 3 sequential tiles of the same suit. Will refer to it as Chi.

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Game Glossary K

Kan
Another name for kong, Japanese word.

Kantsu
Japanese mahjong word, A set of 4 identical tiles. Will refer to it as Kong.

Keishiki tenpai
Janpanese mahjong word. A rule, normally used in modern Japanese Mah Jong (Ari-Ari rules), according to which a minimum point requirement specified for a winning hand (normally worth 1 han) is ignored, when determining the ready state of the hand. I.e., a hand is considered ready, if it can be structurally completed into a winning hand, even if it would not meet the minimum point requirement, when complete. The more restrictive Nashi-Nashi rules often require a ready hand (when completed into winning hand with best possible tile) to meet the minimum point requirement. The rule is meaningful in the context of draw when determining whether a player should receive a bonus for a ready hand, and also when determining whether a deal should be passed after a draw (the rules might e.g. specify that a deal is not passed if the dealer has a ready hand). It is also used after a drawn game, when players who declared ready must expose their hand for evaluating whether their declarations were legal.

Knitted Tiles
Tiles 1-4-7, 2-5-8 and 3-6-9 in different suits.

Kong
A kong is a set of four identical tiles. Because all other melds contain three tiles, a Kong must be immediately exposed when explicitly declared. If the fourth tile is formed from a discard, it is said to be an exposed Kong (明槓/明杠, pinyin ming gang). If all four tiles were formed in the hand, it is said to be a concealed Kong (暗槓/暗杠, pinyin an gang). In some forms of play, the outer two tiles of a concealed Kong are flipped to indicate its concealed status. It is also possible to form an exposed Kong if the player has an exposed Pung and draws the fourth tile. In any case, a player must draw an extra tile from the back end of the wall (or from the dead wall, if it exists) and discard as normal. Play then continues to the right. Once a Kong is formed, it cannot be split up (say, if you wanted to instead use one tile as part of a Chow), and thus, it may be advantageous not to immediately declare a Kong.

Kong Box
Another name for the dead wall.

Kong on Kong
One of the classical Limit hands. Player completes two Kongs in a row on one turn and goes out on the supplement tile received for the second Kong.

Koutsu
Japanese mahjong word, A set of 3 identical tiles. Will refer to it as Pon.

Kraks
Another name for Characters

Kuikae
Janpanese mahjong word.A rule, sometimes used in Japanese Mah Jong, forbidding a player to break an existing set and immediately discard a tile identical with the claimed tile, or one related to the claimed tile (i.e., a tile 3 numbers different from the claimed tile which can form a sequence with the just exposed tiles).

Kuitan
Japanese mahjong word,A rule that allows a Tanyao, All Simples, hand to be made with revealed sets.

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Game Glossary L

Leader
Another name for Dealer

Last-chance hand
A one-chance hand where all but one exemplar of the only possible winning tile have been played (see pictures above). The rule is sometimes extended by specifying that a hand with multiple chances is considered last-chance, if all but one possible winning tile have been played (i.e., they are no longer available).

Lay Down
Another name for reveal.

Leaping Tiles
A ritual performed by the dealer as the tiles are first distributed from the wall. The dealer does not wait until all players have the compulsory 13 tiles in hand before drawing his first tile to start play. He takes his 13th tile and skips over the next tile to take the 14th tile right away.

Limit
A maximum point total that a hand maybe worth, to which any higher-scoring hand is automatically reduced.

Limit Hand
A rare hand that automatically pays the limit (or a percentage of the limit, e.g., 50% of Limit, 400% of Limit, etc.), in which case scores for components are ignored and final score is directly determined by the scoring for the limit hand. Sometimes multiple limit hands are acknowledged; e.g., a hand can score one limit for being Hidden Treasure, and another for being All Green. A limit hand can also be composed of irregular combinations. E.g., Thirteen Orphans is not composed of regular Chows, Pungs, Kongs and a pair. There are about ten Limit hands that are universally acknowledged. For more information, see Limit and Special hands.

Limit Points
For short, the ‘limit’. An agreement between players on the maximum amount of points any player can score for a hand. Note that the limit is not applied to payments but just to the final score a player can have for his hand. E.g., in the classical rules the limit is typically 500 points, but if the winner is East, and he goes out on a hand that merits the limit, he will receive 1,000 points (double his final score) from each of the other players, so that the total of payments is 3,000. In modern Asian Mah Jong a multiple limit scoring system is used instead of an absolute limit. Here the limit specifies a point where linear doubling of scores is first time regulated. A hand can well score multiple limits (either by virtue of multiple patterns the faan values of which have been added together, or by virtue of a single pattern that can score e.g. 400% of the Limit). The maximum final score is specified by a settling table but can be surpassed by assigning a direct multiple limit value to individual hands and patterns, or by allowing multiple limit hands, in which case a hand can score several limits for being e.g. both Hidden Treasure and All Green.

Little Four Joys
Another name for Little Four Winds

Little Four Winds
A hand containing three triplets and a pair of Winds. Normally pays 1 extra double.

Little Three Dragons
A hand with two Dragon Pungs and a Dragon pair plus any sets. This usually scores three doubles (one extra, since the two Dragon triplets score each 1 double).

Live Wall
The portion of the wall from which tiles are dealt and players "pick" tiles during play.

Loose tile
Another name for supplement tile.

Loose Tiles
Another name for replacement or makeup tiles; tiles which are picked from the dead wall to replace bonus tiles or to replace the fourth tile laid down in a Kong.

Lowest Scoring Hand
The chicken hand, composed of mixed chows, pongs, and/or kongs, and/or mixed suits.

Lucky Pair
A pair composed of Dragons or special Wind tiles (usually player’s own Wind or Wind of the Round). In classical rules a lucky pair is worth 2 points.

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Game Glossary M

Mahjong
A winning hand in which all the tiles have been matched into a special hand combination or regular hand combination of four sets (pongs, kongs, and/or chows) and a pair. Ways of mahjong: – self-drawn (Ch. zi mo chi he, Jap. tsu-mo agari): winning with a tile received from the Wall. – on a discard (Ch. ron he; Jap. ron agari): winning with a tile claimed from another player. – on a supplement tile (Ch. ling shang kai hua, Jap. rin-syan-kai-hou): winning with a tile received from the Dead Wall (after declaring a Kong or having a Flower or Season from the Wall) . – with the last tile of the Wall (Ch. hai di lao yue, Jap. hai-tei-rou-ei, hai-tei): winning with the last tile of the Wall. – with the last discard (Ch. ho di lao yu, Jap. hou-tei-rao-yui, hou-tei): winning with a tile that is discarded after the last tile of the Wall is played. – by robbing a Kong (Ch. qiang gang huo, Jap. chan-kan): winning by taking a tile that another player tried to use for promoting a melded Pung to a melded Kong.

Major Tiles
A term used to denote the Dragons, Winds and Terminals (as opposed to simples, or minor tiles, i.e. suit tiles from 2 to 8). Major tiles score slightly better in classical Mah Jong than minor tiles.

Makeup Tiles
Another name for loose or replacement tiles which are picked from the dead wall to replace bonus tiles or to replace the fourth tile laid down in a kong.

Mangan
Japanese mahjong word, Initial Scoring Limit.A scoring system used in modern Japanese Mah Jong, according to which the total score of the hand is determined by a settling table over fu (points) and fan(multipliers). The settling table regulates doubling of the fu and often specifies identical or intermediate values for increasing number of han. As in modern Chinese Mah Jong, the limit does not specify the maximum for the total score, but is used as a unit (e.g., a hand can be worth 3 limits). For more information, see Mangan scoring.

Match
A series of rounds to defeat one opponent and move to the next.

Matched Pair
Two identical tiles (also called the "eyes").

Matched Set
A set of tiles that make up a chow, pong or kong.

Matchin Chows
Two matching chows in different suits.

Meld (n)
When a tile is claimed from another player, the resulting set must be put aside and exposed to other players. This is called 搈elding?a tile set. Once a set is melded, its component tiles can’t be used for other combinations. Melded tiles are placed above each player’s hand. Notice that declaring a concealed Kong closely resembles melding a Kong: in both cases the tiles are exposed and put aside and can’t be used for other combinations, but in the previous case the 1st and 4th tiles are normally turned face-down as to mark the set as concealed (in some rules the tiles are left face-down). Also a tile set that is melded.

Meld (v)
A tile set that is composed by claiming one of the tiles from another player’s discard. A melded tile set is placed face up above the player’s hand. Notice that a concealed Kong, which must be placed on the table after the declaration, is not melded, though the second and third tile are normally placed face up (in certain rules, however, all tiles of a concealed Kong are placed on board face down). Note too that in some rules a claimed Kong is considered as a concealed triplet (while being at the same time a melded Kong), and accordingly the fourth tile is turned face down as to make is stand out from concealed Kongs and Kongs completed from melded Pungs.

Minimum points
A restriction on a winning hand, which requires that the hand is worth at least the specified amount of points (the unit can be points – meaning the total score for the hand – doubles, faan or han, depending on the selected scoring system). Often the rules specify certain additional conditions for calculating the minimum points, e.g., the bonus points for Flowers and Seasons, Dora tiles, etc., are often ignored when determining whether a hand meets the minimum point requirement.

Minor Tiles
A term used to denote the suit tiles from 2 to 8 (as opposed to major tiles, i.e. Honors and Terminals). More commonly known as simples.

Missed discard
A rule that forbids a player to go out on a discard that he has missed (after his last move, and before he has made his next draw or a legal claim). Some rules extend the rule to cover a player’s next self-drawn tile, as well. Note that it is legal to claim a missed discard if the player does not go out with the tile (i.e., he discards one of his tiles after having melded the set).

Mixed Hand
A hand that contains sets of tiles from two or more suits.

Mixed Suits
Similar to a mixed hand: Matched sets of tiles in different suits.

Moons
Another name for Circles

Move
Any play made by a player with a tile on his or her turn. This includes tile discard and calling pong, chow, kong and/or Mahjong.

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Game Glossary N

Nagashi Mangan
A rule occasionally used in the modern Japanese Mah Jong, which states that if the deal ends in an exhaustive draw (as opposed to an abortive draw, caused by e.g. a dead hand) and a player’s discards consist of terminals and honors only, and none of his discards have been claimed and the player himself has not melded any tiles (including concealed Kongs), the hand is scored as if the player had gone out. The score is often specified as single limit (mangan).

Nine Gates
One of the classical Limit hands. Can be considered a sort of other of all hands in classical Mah Jong. The hand consists of tiles 1112345678999 of one suit, all in hand, allowing a player to go out on any tile of the same suit, a player has nine chances to go out, hence the name. Not to be confused with American gate hands, which are just irregular hands amongst others. Modern versions sometimes allow impure version of Nine Gates hand, in which case the player has 12 of the tiles mentioned above in hand and 13th tile of one of the tiles between 2 and 8 (the winning tile makes the hand identical with the pure version of Nine Gates, but the player did not have 9 chances to go out).

Nine Sacred Lamps of Lotus
Another name for Nine Gates

Nine United Sons
Another name for Nine Gates

No-points Hand
No-points hand (sometimes also called a Valueless hand) consists of a complete hand with mere Chows and an ordinary pair (other than a pair of Dragons or a pair of player’s own Wind or Wind of the Round, or any other pair that possibly has a scoring value). The hand is typically used in Japanese Mah Jong and should not be confused with Chicken hand (a hand with a total value of zero). Normally it is required that the hand does not score anything in the point (fu) unit, excepting the winning bonus (and possibly a point bonus for Concealed hand), i.e., the hand must be completed on a discarded tile (since going out self-drawn earns 2 points), and the winning tile must not complete a pair or a one-chance Chow (since these earn 2 extra points each). Note however that a No-points hand can pay doubles normally (e.g., three doubles for being One Suit Only, etc.). A No-points hand normally pays the winner one extra double/han (or 10 points, depending on the rule).

Normal Hand
Also called a regular hand, this hand is normally composed of 4 simple matched sets of tiles (kongs, pongs and/or chows) and a pair.

No-Ten
Japanese mahjong word, What is called when a player does not have Tenpai at the end of the round.

Number Tile
Tiles that represent numbers. There are three types: Characters, Bamboos, and Dots.

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Game Glossary O

One-Chance
Having only one tile possibility to choose from to go out.

One-chance Hand
A hand is called one-chance if there is just one kind of a tile (disregarding how many there are still left to be played of that tile), which can theoretically complete it into a structurally valid winning hand (see pictures above). E.g., a hand consisting of 2-3-4-5 and calling for 2 or 5 is not considered a one-chance hand, even if four 2 and three 5 have already been played (in the latter case the hand is practically one-chance as there is only one kind of tile that can complete it, but it is not theoretically one-chance). However, often the concept of one-chance is extended by specifying that a hand with multiple chances is considered one-chance, if all but one possible winning tiles have been played (i.e., all four of each of the other tiles appear amongst discards and melds). Note however, that a tile is not dead by the fact that it cannot complete a hand (e.g., because of a minimum point requirement). E.g., if a player is calling with a Dragon pair and pair of Bamboo 5 and the hand would qualify for a winning hand only if it were completed with a Dragon Pung, the hand is not considered one-chance? One-chance hand is acknowledged in the classical Chinese rules, but is often interpreted in later rules as a hand that is completed with either a one-chance Chow or a pair, allowing cases like calling with 2-3-4-5 for 2 or 5?(on the other hand, in this case there is normally no extra bonus for going out on a pair; in classical rules a player might get bonus for both going out on a pair and for One-chance hand). See also Last-chance hand.

Open
Describing a meld completed with a tile that another player discarded. Same as Exposed.

Opening a Flower on top of a Mountain
Another name for Out on a supplement tile

Optional Tiles
The flower tiles and the season tiles. Also called bonus tiles.

Original Call
A player declaring ready on his first discard. If a player subsequently goes out on the declared hand, he is normally rewarded with one extra double. This rule is used in classical Chinese Mah Jong. It normally requires that the hand is not altered in any way after the declaration (if changing is allowed and a player does change his hand, he is no longer entitled to this bonus).

Out on a one-chance Chow
A one-chance Chow is one that can be completed only on one side or with a middle tile (see picture above). In Japanese and Western rules this gives often a minor bonus (usually worth 2 points).

Out on a one-way-Chow
Another name for Out on a one-chance Chow

Out on a supplement tile
Going out on a tile received as a replacement for declaring a Kong or as a replacement for a Flower or Season tile. This normally pays 1 extra double. Some rules (e.g. Chinese Classical) pay this bonus only if the supplement tile was received for declaring a Kong.

Out on the last discard
Going out on a discard after all tiles of the Wall have been drawn. This is normally rewarded with 1 extra double.

Out on the last tile of the Wall
Going out by drawing the last available tile from the Wall. This is normally rewarded with 1 extra double. Note: In some rules this hand is called hai di lao yue (meaning literally Catching the Moon from the Bottom of the Sea), but this term is more generally used to refer to a special case where a hand goes out on the last tile of the Wall and the winning tile is 1 of Dots.

Over -punging
Another name for Over-claiming

Over-claiming
An act of claiming a discarded tile for a Pung (or Kong, if jokers are enabled) after one of the other players has claimed the same tile for a Chow. This can be done unintentionally, but normally over-claiming is a strategic device: the discard is claimed e.g. to prohibit an opponent player to improve his hand.

Own Wind
Own Wind refers to a pair or triplet composed of player’s own Wind. This is is often rewarded with bonus points.

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Game Glossary P

Pair
The fifth set in the winning hand, consisting of two identical tiles. All regular hands must contain one (and only one) pair. Also called the eyes.

Pao
In classical Mah Jong special Pao rules are often applied (in Western world the rule is more commonly known as Pao and accordingly the rule is listed here rather than under the letter 揃?. These rules specify that if a player makes an irresponsible discard, he must pay alone all losses (for all losers), even if the actual discarder is someone else or if the winning tile is self-drawn. These penalties are also called insurance penalties since they guarantee that other losers do not suffer from the pao discarder抯 blunder. In addition to One suit only, insurance penalties are normally used for the classical limit hands Big Three Dragons, Big Four Winds, All Honors, All Terminals and All Green. In addition, some rules specify Last Five Tiles Error (or Last Four Tiles Error), according to which a player who discards a fresh winning tile, when only five (or four) tiles are left in the Wall, must pay for all losers.

Passing of the Deal
Normally the winds change places in a counter-clockwise direction after the hand is played. East wind, which marks the dealer, passes to the next player in turn. Note that if East wins, the deal normally does not pass. Also, if the deal ends in a draw, the deal usually does not pass (except in Japanese Mah Jong).

Payout
The portion or share of the table stakes amount paid to the winning player by each losing player. Equal payouts amongst players occur when the winner self-picks the winning tile. When a player throws the tile that allows a player to win, the Discarder Pays All penalty rule applies.

Penalty
In live Mahjong games, penalties may be given for errors in play, such as when a player has too many or too few tiles in their hand, discards a tile before picking one from the wall, and so forth.

Peng
Another name for Pong, Chinese word.

Pick
To take a tile from the live wall or from the discard area and place it in your hand.

Pieces
sometimes called tiles

Plates
Another name for Circles

Plays
Any move that a player makes with a tile on his or her turn. This includes tile discard, and calling pong, chow, kong and/or Mahjong.

Pon
Another name for Pong, Japanese word.

Pong (n)
A pong or pung is a set of three identical tiles. In American Mahjong, where it is possible to meld Flower tiles, a pong may also refer to a meld of three of the four flower tiles in a single group. American Mahjong may also have hands requiring a knitted triplet - three tiles of identical rank but of three different suits.

Pong (v)
To claim a tile for a Pung by declaring pung.

Prevailing Wind
A Wind that starts with East and changes every four hands, once the original East is East again. When the winds have gone around (i.e. the original East is East again, and the prevailing wind is again East), the game ends. (Although addicts are allowed to start up another game, of course!) Tiles of the Prevailing Wind as well as of a player's own Wind are worth more in melds.

Primes
Another name for Dragons.

Private Hand
Another name for Concealed hand.

Progressive Chows
Chows stepped up one or two digits.

Progressive Pungs
Pungs stepped up one digit.

Pung
Three identical tiles, sometimes transliterated as Pong instead.

Pung Hand
A hand composed of four triplets (Pungs/Kongs) and a pair. I.e., a hand that contains no sequences (toi-toi ho). This is normally rewarded with one extra double.

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Game Glossary Q


Quadruplet
A set of four identical tiles. Also known as gong, gang, kong and set of four.

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Game Glossary R

Rank
The numerical value of a tile (1,2,3 etc).

Reach
Japanese mahjong word, A declaration that can be made after drawing a new tile. The hand must be entirely concealed and need only one more tile to go out once a tile is discarded.

Ready
A hand that is one tile short of being complete; also, a player waiting the winning tile. In the Japanese rules a player can declare Ready (Jap. ri-chi) which results in a bonus if the player subsequently wins the deal. Some rules require an obligatory ready declaration as to warn other players that a player needs only one tile to go out. Note: A Ready hand means that the hand is structurally in all respects one tile short of a winning hand. If there are restrictions on the winning hand (e.g., limitation in number of Chows, prohibition of mixed suits, etc), the hand is not considered ready, if it cannot be completed with just one tile in a way that meets these requirements. If the rules apply a minimum point requirement on the winning hand, it is often ignored when the ready state of a hand is checked, but some rules require that a hand ?when completed ?meets the minimum point requirement. In this case rules often specify certain additional conditions (e.g., bonus points for Flowers or Seasons, Dora tiles, the ready declaration itself, etc., are often ignored when calculating the hand for minimum points).

Ready Hand
A hand that is one tile short of winning.

Red Dora Tiles
In addition to (or sometimes in place of) the actual Dora tiles, some Japanese rules use special red Dora tiles, also known as Red Fives or simply as red tiles. According to this rule, one of each of the four number five tiles of each suit is marked red (thus there are three red bonus tiles theoretically available in each deal). Each such special tile in a winner's hand gives a specified bonus. If the winning hand is restricted by requirement of minimum points (han), the bonus for red Dora tiles is normally not included in the calculation when determining whether a hand qualifies for a winning hand.

Regular Hand
Also called a normal hand, this hand is normally composed of 4 simple matched sets of tiles (kongs, pongs and/or chows) and a pair.

Replacement Tiles
Also called loose tiles or makeup tiles; tiles which are picked from the dead wall as replacements for bonus tiles or to replace the fourth tile laid down in a kong. Another name for Supplement tile.

Reveal
To turn a tile a set of tiles face up on the table for opponents' viewing.

Revealed Hand
A hand containing one or more sets that have been shown, or turned face up. to opponents during the game.

Revealed Set
A set that is shown to the opponent. Revealed sets can only be made using an opponent's discard.

Reversible Tiles
Tiles that have the same appearance when inverted.

Ri-chi
Japanese for declare Ready?(the Chinese term in Pin Yin is li zhi). A version or Ready hand rule used often in the Japanese Mah Jong. According to this rule the hand that is to be declared ready must usually be completely concealed (concealed Kongs are allowed, though). After the declaration, the hand is often locked (and sometimes the tiles are placed face down on the table). This means that no changes are allowed to the hand (though some rules allow concealed Kongs that do not alter the hand). Furthermore, the rules may require that the player who has declared Ready must go out with the first possible discard (or self-drawn tile). Going out on a hand declared Ready usually scores one extra double (han). Penalties are often applied if a player who has declared Ready fails to win the deal.

Riichi
Another name for Ri-chi

Robbing The Kong
Going out by taking the winning tile from a player who declares a melded Kong (adding a tile he has received from the Wall to a melded Pung). This normally pays one extra double. If the robbed tile is Bamboo 2, the winner receives limit points (if the limit hand Scratching a Carrying Pole is acknowledged).

Ron
Japanese mahjong word, what is called when a player goes out using an opponent's discarded tile.

Round
A Round consists of at least four deals so that each player has been East (dealer) at least once. There are often more than four deals per round, since normally the deal does not pass if the dealer (East) wins, and in some versions of Mah Jong, the deal is also played again if the hand ends in a draw. Notice that sets composed of the Wind of the Round (like sets composed of player’s own Wind) often pay twice more than sets composed of ordinary winds, and they are usually worth an extra bonus (one double/faan/han). A complete Mah Jong session normally consists of four rounds. The first round is East, the second round South, the third West and the last North. In modern Japanese Mah Jong a single match consists normally of only two rounds (East and South rounds) but often several complete matches are played in a row.

Round of Play
When all players have been the dealer at least once. At least 4 hands

Rule Variations
There are Mahjong rules for different countries. Chinese rules are most prevalent, but other rule variations exist, including Japanese, American and others.

Run
A straight, or a series of consecutive numbered tiles in the common suits.

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Game Glossary S

Sacred Discard
A tile previously discarded by a player which would allow that player to go out at a later point in the game; player must declare the sacred discard and may not use that tile (or any identical ones discarded by other players) until after drawing from the wall at least once.

Sanbaiman
Japanese mahjong word, 3 times Mangan. Score received with a hand worth 11-12 fans.

Score, Scoring
The total points earned at the end of hand including points earned from bonus tiles.

Scratching a Carrying Pole
One of the classical Limit hands. Going out by taking the winning tile from a player who is about to promote a melded Pung of Bamboo 2 into a melded Kong.

Season
Any of the four optional (bonus) tiles showing a season of the year. Spring, Summer, Autumn and Winter.

Seat Wind
Wind corresponding to the player's seat.

Seating, Seat Assignment
Players are seated randomly at a table. The computer generates and shuffles the four wind tiles. The wind tiles are randomly assigned to each seat. The player assigned the East Wind tile becomes the dealer. The player assigned the South Wind tile will be seated to the right of the dealer. The West Wind will sit to the dealer's left, and the North Wind will be seated opposite the dealer.

Self-Draw
Also called self-pick, this occurs when a player chooses a tile from the wall.

Self-Pick
Also called "self-draw", this occurs when a player chooses a tile from the wall.

Sequence
Three suit tiles in successive order; another name for chow (or sheung).

Set
A complete hand is composed of four sets and a pair. The sets (besides the pair, which is normally not counted as a set) are as follows: Chow (a sequence of one Suit), Pung (three similar tiles) and Kong (four similar tiles). A set can be composed of tiles received from the Wall (a concealed set), or completed by claiming the missing tile from another player’s discard (a melded set).

Set of Four
Another name for a kong (gong, gang or quadruplet).

Set of Three
Another name for a pong (pong or triplet ).

Settling
The act of comparing scores between pairs of players and transferring points between them accordingly.

Shang
Another name for chow, Chinese word.

Sheung
A sequence of three tiles of consecutive rank in one common suit; also called chow, chi or sequence. You cannot make sheungs in runs of four and you cannot make them from honor tiles.

Simples
A Bamboo, Dot or Character tile whose value is other than 1 or 9. Some rules give points for a hand with All simples. Also known as Minor Tiles.

Special Hand
A valuable hand that is often composed of irregular combinations, e.g. Seven Pairs. Often used as a synonym for Limit hand.

Stack
A pile of two tiles, forming a unit in the Wall.

Starting Dealer
The very first dealer of the game

Stepped Chows
separated by one or two numbers.

Sticks
Another name for Bamboos

Suit
One of three symbols found on the common tiles, either bamboos, characters, or circles.

Suit Tile
On of the 108 tiles showing a number (from 1 through 9) in the bamboo, character, or circle suit.

Supplement Tile
A tile taken from the Dead Wall as a replacement for a tile used for declaring or claiming a Kong. If Flowers and Seasons are used, supplement tiles for them are normally also taken from the Dead Wall (however, the Chinese Classical rules specify that the supplement tiles for Flowers and Seasons are taken from the Wall, instead). A supplement tile is also known as a loose tile? (because the supplement tiles used to be placed two at a time on top of the Dead Wall as if tiles that are loose?. Normally each supplement tile taken from the Dead Wall is replaced with a tile from the end of the Wall so that the number of available supplement tiles always remains the same; as a result each used supplement tile reduces the number of available tiles by one. Normally the number of supplement tiles in the Dead Wall is 14. Note that a player is not given a supplement tile after there are no tiles left in the Wall; instead, the deal ends immediately after the last action that would normally result in receiving a supplement tile (this is because there are no longer tiles that could be used to replenish the Dead Wall). In some rules (notably in the Chinese Classical rules) the Dead Wall is exhaustible with a pre-determined number of tiles (e.g., 14, 16 or 20). In this case a supplement tile is not replaced with a tile from the Wall, and consequently does not reduce the number of playable tiles. In the modern American, Australian and highly pattern-centered Asian games (e.g. in Chinese Official) Dead Wall is not used – the supplement tiles are simply taken from the tail end of the Wall.

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Game Glossary T

Ten Thousands
Another name for Characters

Tenpai
Japanese mahjong word, What is called when the round ends, and a player only need one more tile to make a complete hand. It is also the name for a hand that is a tile short in which the addition of another tile will make it into a complete hand.

Terminal Chi
A Chi that contains a 1 or 9.

Terminals
A suit tile with a rank of 1 or 9; compare with simples.

Thirteen Grades of Imperial Treasure
Another name for Thirteen Orphans

Thirteen Orphans
One of the classical Limit hands. The hand consists of one of each Dragon and Wind, 1 and 9 of each suit and 14th tile forming a pair with any of these. Classically a player was allowed to rob even a concealed Kong to complete this hand, but this is no longer allowed in modern Mah Jong. In Japanese Mah Jong separate scoring is sometimes assigned to Thirteen Orphans pure, which requires that a player is calling with the orphans (in which case he can go out on a tile identical with any of the 13 tiles already in hand).

Thirteen Terminals
A special hand consisting of one of each of the terminal tiles (one and nine), plus one each of the honor tiles (4 winds , 3 dragons ) and a 14th tile that matches any of the other 13.

Thirteen Unique Wonders
One of the classical Limit hands. The hand consists of one of each Dragon and Wind, 1 and 9 of each suit and 14th tile forming a pair with any of these. Classically a player was allowed to rob even a concealed Kong to complete this hand, but this is no longer allowed in modern Mah Jong. In Japanese Mah Jong separate scoring is sometimes assigned to Thirteen Orphans pure, which requires that a player is calling with the orphans (in which case he can go out on a tile identical with any of the 13 tiles already in hand).

Three Great Scholars
Another name for Big Three Dragons.

Throw
Another name for discard.To play a tile face up in the discard area.

Tile
The rectangular objects used to play Mahjong ; similar in function to playing cards.

Tile Set
A complete set of 144 tiles.

Time Limits
The amount of time to make a play. Time allowed for decision-making and play varies.

Traditional Hand
Common hands that are somewhat easier to assemble than special hands. Traditional hands contain varying numbers of chows, pongs and/or kongs and a pair.

Triplet
A set of three identical tiles, also referred to as pong or a pung.

Tsumo
Japanese mahjong word, What is called when a player goes out with a drawn tile.

Tsumo Pinfu
Japanese mahjong word, A rule that allows a Pinfu, All Chi, hand to be made only by Tsumo and not by Ron.

Turn
A player begins his turn by drawing a tile from the Wall or by claiming a discarded tile, and concludes the turn by discarding a tile. Some rules restrict player’s right to declare a concealed Kong, or completing a melded Pung into a melded Kong, to the situation where the turn is started by drawing a tile from the Wall (declaring Kong after having claimed a discarded tile is not allowed).

Turn Face Up
Another name for reveal.

Twin Chows
Two identical chows in the same suit.

Twofold Fortune
Another name for Kong on Kong.

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Game Glossary V

Void Suit
A hand lacking tiles of one suit.

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Game Glossary W


Waiting
Another name for Ready.

Wall
Before the deal begins all 136 (or more, if Seasons and Flowers or jokers are used) tiles are shuffled and arranged in four rows (two layers per each row) forming a square shape that resembles a wall. At the beginning of the deal the Wall is broken, and the dealing of tiles is started from the first tile left to the breaking point. Traditionally the 14 tiles to the right of the breaking point comprise the Dead Wall (or the Ruin).

Wan
Another word for character, one of the three common suits.

Wash-out (n).
Another name for Draw

Wheels
Another name for circles.

Win
Another name for going Mahjong, or winning.

Wind Indicator
A disk that appears in the nameplate of each player. It indicates their seating position in the game: East, West, North or South.

Wind of the Round
Another name for Prevailing Win.

Wind Tile
East, South, West and North. Four tiles for each. They can be discarded from the layout in pairs of two identical tiles.

Winning from the Bottom of the Sea
Another name for Out on the last tile of the Wall.

Winning Hand
A complete, or "go Mahjong" hand composed of several matched set of tiles: usually a pair of identical tiles (eyes) and 4 sets of tiles that make chows and/or pongs and/or kongs. Other special combinations are possible.

Winning on the Roof
Another name for Out on a supplement tile.

Woo
Another name for going Mahjong, or winning.

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Game Glossary Y

Yakitori
A special penalty, sometimes used in modern Japanese Mah Jong, according to which a player who has not won a single deal during the entire game (normally consisting of two rounds) must pay each of the other three players a penalty worth a limit (normally 2,000 points) at the end of the game. East normally pays and receives double.

Yaku
Japanese mahjong word, What is needed in order to go out. Each Yaku is equivalent to 1 Fan.

Yaku Table
Another name for Mangan

Yakuman
Japanese mahjong word, Scoring title obtain when a player's score is worth 13 or more Fans.

YanAnother name for eyes, Chinese word.

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